Monthly Archives: July 2013

ADVANCES ON HETEROSIS AND HYBRID BREEDING IN FABA BEAN (VICIA FABA L.)

S.K. BISHNOI*, J.S. HOODA, I.S. YADAV AND RAVISH PANCHTA

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125004 (Haryana), India
*(email : sk_bishnoi@scientist.com)
(Received: 28 May, 2013, Accepted: 29 July, 2013)

SUMMARY

Faba bean, formerly broad bean, as a grain legume for protein security of demographically expanding and climatically changing world is gaining importance. Yield instability, however, remains major constraint in the cultivation of this important crop and it is contributing to significant decrease in acreage under this crop worldwide. Exploitation of heterosis has now long been established as a strategy to not only increase the yield but also to stabilize it in open pollinated crops.  The cytoplasmic male sterility has already been discovered and positive and significant heterosis for seed yield component characters has been repeatedly demonstrated in the partially allogamous faba bean. Despite these developments, all the attempts for full exploitation of heterosis in the form of commercial production of F1 hybrid have failed due to phenotypic instability of the cytoplasmic male sterility. The goal of development of hybrid varieties in this species remains unrealized yet, although partial exploitation of the heterosis in the form of synthetic varieties has been reported. The present review of research attempts to synthesize the literature on heterosis research in faba bean along with the description of current and future breeding objectives in context of the unique floral and pollination biology, CMS instability and constraints in hybrid breeding.

Key words: Vicia faba, faba bean, hybrid breeding, CMS, heterosis.

65-73

IMPACT OF PLANTING MATERIAL, CUTTING MANAGEMENT AND FERTILIZER LEVELS ON NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF BAJRA X NAPIER HYBRID

S. H. PATHAN, A. D. TUMBARE ANDA.B. KAMBLE

Department of Agronomy, Post Graduate Institute

Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri – 413 722 (Mahrashtra), India

(e-mail: pathansarfraj 85@gmail.com, drarunkamble@gmail.com)

(Received: 28 May, 2013, Accepted: 29 July, 2013)

 SUMMERY

Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of planting material, cutting management and fertilizer levels on the growth, yield and quality of Bajra x Napier hybrid during 2009-10 to 2010-11. The quality parameters viz., DMY, CPY, CFY and silica were significantly higher with rooted slips planted at 90 cm x 60 cm, However, CPC, CFC, NDF, ADF, IVDMD, oxalic acid, ash, cellulose, hemi-cellulose and chlorophyll content were not influenced significantly due to different planting material used for propagation of Bajra x Napier hybrid. The quality parameters also differed significantly with various cutting management treatments. The quality parameters viz., DMY, CPY, CFY were significantly maximum with 60 days cutting interval, while the values of CPC, IVDMD, oxalic acid and ash were significantly higher at 45 days cutting interval. Whereas, CFC, NDF, ADF and ADL were found significantly higher at 75 days cutting interval indicating the inferior quality of green forage yield of Bajra x Napier hybrid. The significantly higher values of DMY, CPC, CPY, CFC, CFY, IVDMD, and silica content either at 45 days or 60 days cutting interval indicating desirable quality of GFY. Application of 150 % RDF registered significantly higher values of most of the forage quality parameters namely DMY, CPC, CFY, CFC, CFY, IVDMD, oxalic acid , ash, cellulose and hemi-cellulose content and chlorophyll content as compared to rest of the fertilizer levels. However, the maximum values of CFC, NDF, ADF, ADL and silica content was observed with 100 % RDF.

Key words: planting material, cutting management, fertilizer, forage quality parameters and Bajra x Napier hybrid

74-79

SUDIES ON ESTIMATES OF GENETIC VARIABILITY AND CHARACTER ASSOCIATION OF YIELLD COMPONENTS AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN PEARLMILLET

Rakesh choudhary, babu lal jat,1  r.anwala,2  s.r.dhikwal3 AND k.c. sharma

Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner-Jaipur, Rajasthan,India
1 Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics College of Agriculture, Bikaner Rajasthan, India
2Department of Soil Science  College of Agriculture, Bikaner Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Agronomy College of Agriculture, Bikaner Rajasthan, India
(E-mail:  babu_agrotech@yahoo.co.in)
(Received: 29 December, 2012, Accepted: 23 July, 2013)

SUMMARY

Fifty genotypes of pearlmillet (including 3 checks viz. Raj-171, ICTP-3616, ICTP 8203) were evaluated for genetic variability and character association between grain yield and its different morphological characters in Randomized Block Design during kharif season, 2007. The analysis of variance indicated significant variability among genotypes for all the characters studied. The association analysis revealed that grain yield per plot had significant positive correlation at phenotypic level with plant height, productive tillers per plant, ear girth, dry fodder yield per plant, test weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant. The grain yield per plant also significantly and positively associated with these traits and these traits were also associated significantly and positively among themselves. However, days to heading was negatively associated with grain yield per plot, grain yield per plant, test weight, dry fodder yield per plant, ear girth and plant height and dry fodder yield per plant also negatively associated with harvest index. suggested that in breeding programme, major emphasis should be given to plant height, productive tillers per plant, ear girth, dry fodder yield per plant, test weight and harvest index(%) as they had positive correlation coefficients with grain yield with high direct effect and they also had high genetic variability. The path analysis revealed that dry fodder yield/plant and harvest index is the major contributors towards the grain yield/plant. Hence, main emphasis should be given in breeding programme.

Key words: Genetic variability, GCV, PCV, heritability, genetic advance, character association, pearl millet

80-85

PERFORMANCE OF FORAGE AND LEGUMES INTERCROPPING IN JATROPHA CURCAS PLANTATION IN SEMI-ARID REGION OF HARYANA

 M. K. SINGH*, MAHAVIR PARSHAD, R. K. ARYA1, PAWAN KUMAR2 AND K. S. AHLAWAT

Department of Forestry, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004
Agronomy, and Plant Breeding1
*(Email: mks.hau.cssri@gmail.com)
(Received: 28 January, 2013, Accepted: 9 July, 2013)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted to identify suitable crops for Jatropha based intercropping system during winter season of 2005-06 and 2006-07 at Department of Forestry Farm, CCS HAU, Hisar. The production potential of greengram (Vigna radiata). cv-MH-96-1, clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). cv-HG-563, mothbean (Phaseolus aconitifolius). cv-RMO-40 and pearlmillet (Pennisetum typhoides). cv-HHB-67 were evaluated under 5m x 3m spacing of Jatropha planted in September 2003. Jatropha plantation had no significant effect on the growth and yield of test crops during the first year of experimentation except that mothbean, branching and yield was significantly reduced over control. However, the growth, yield and yield attributes of all the test crops were reduced significantly in Jatropha based intercropping system over control during the second year of experimentation. Two year old Jatropha produced negligible seed yield both during 2005-06 and 2006-07 due to frost injury in 2005-06 and excessive vegetative growth during 2006-07. Therefore, susceptibility of Jatropha to frost, requirement of irrigation for flowering and fruiting and poor seed yield has rendered it unsuitable for north India.

Key words: intercropping, greengram, clusterbean, mothbean, pearlmillet and Jatropha curcas

86-90

INFLUENCE OF INSECT ATTRACTANTS, MICRONUTRIENTS AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON SEED QUALITY PARAMETERS IN ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.)

 K. SREEDHARA1, A. KRISHNA2 AND S. HARISH 3*

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, UAS, Dharwad, Karnataka
2Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Forestry, UAS, Sirsi, Karnataka
3Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, UAS, Dharwad, Karnataka
* (E-mail : kumarsky999@gmail.com)
(Received: 1 July, 2013, Accepted: 23 July, 2013)

 SUMMARY

A laboratory experiment was carried out at Seed Quality and Research Laboratory, National Seed Unit, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during the Rabi-Summer 2010-11. The experiment consisted of 8 treatment combinations involving two insect attractants, A1- Jaggery solution @ 2% and A2- Commercial attractant (Bee-Q @ 0.175%), two micronutrients M1- Boron @ 0.8% and M2- Molybdenum @ 0.05% and two growth regulators. G1- Gibberilic Acid (GA3) @ 50 ppm and G2- Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) @ 50 ppm. Among the insect attractants sprayed, Bee-Q recorded significantly higher test weight (2.62 g), germination percentage (91.16) and vigour index (1373) sprayed at the time of 50 per cent flowering stage and also showed lower electrical conductivity (0.264 dSm-1). Among the growth regulators sprayed, GA3 (Gibberilic Acid) @ 50 ppm sprayed showed significantly higher test weight (2.60), germination percentage (92.66)  and  vigour index (1426) and also recorded lower EC (0.260 dSm-1). Application of Molybdenum  @ 0.05 per cent as foliar spray recorded significantly higher test weight (2.50 g), germination percentage (90.58) and vigour index (1332) and also recorded lower EC (0.278 dSm-1). The interaction effects between insect attractants, micronutrients and growth regulators were found significant. The treatment combination of A1M1G2 found significantly superior for seed quality parameters over all other treatment combinations.

Key words: Lucerne, Insect attractants, boron, molybdenum, gibberlic acid, naphthalene and seed quality

91-95

GENETIC VARIABILITY FOR SEEDLING VIGOUR TRAITS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH SEED YIELD AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERRILL]

 S D TYAGI+, JYOTI SETHI+ AND VIKRANT TYAGI*

 +Department of Plant Breeding and Genetic, Kisan (P.G.) College, Simbhaoli, Hapur -245207, (U.P).
*Department of Plant Breeding and Genetic, PAU, Ludhiana, Ludhiana, 141004, Punjab.
* (E-mail: vikranttyagi97@gmail.com)
(Received: 10 May, 2013, Accepted: 15 July, 2013)

 SUMMARY

Seed and seedling characters in 40 genotypes of soybean were studied to estimate the variability, heritability and association between them. Among seedling characters, root length exhibited the highest variability, heritability and genetic advance as % of mean followed by fresh root weight. None of the seedling characters showed significant positive correlation with seed yield and protein content. Path analysis indicated high positive direct effect of total seedling dry weight and total seedling length on seed yield and protein content. These two seedling characters may be used as early indicators in selection programmes in soybean.

 Key words: Soybean, seedling vigour, variability, correlation, path analysis, yield and protein.

96-101

INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF HYBRID AND COMPOSITE CULTIVARS OF PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM GLAUCUM)

BASANTI CHINTAPALLI*, SUBHASH C. BIYAN, POOJA DHUPPAR AND D. SARVESHWARA

RAODepartment of Botany, Dayalbagh
Educational Institute (Deemed University) Agra, 282005.
*(e-mail : basanthich@gmail.com)
(Received: 11 June, 2012, Accepted: 15 July, 2013)

SUMMARY

The potential performance of Hybrid Pusa 605 and Composite Pusa 443 cultivars of Pearl millet with respect to Integrated Nutrient Management practices in the semi-arid Western Indo-Gangetic plains region of Agra was evaluated in this paper. Azospirillium + PSB + FYM treatment showed significant increase in vegetative growth in terms of plant height, number of leaves per plant, tiller thickness and also panicles per plant, panicle thickness in both hybrid and composite cultivars of Pearl millet is observed when compared to the control. However, the hybrids exhibited more grain yield (1.47 t/ha) in comparision to composite cultivar (1.30 t/ha). The composite cultivar on the other hand, improved green fodder yield (76.5 t/ha) over hybrid cultivar (62.36 t/ha).

Key words : Management practices, Azospirillium, PSB, FYM, grain yield and pearl millet

102-105

EFFECT OF BIO-REGULATORS APPLICATION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.) IN ARID CONDITIONS OF WESTERN RAJASTHAN

 S. R. DHIKWAL*, S. M. KUMAWAT1, SHAYAM DAS2 AND B. L. JAT3

Department of Agronomy,
College of Agriculture, Bikaner (Rajasthan), India
*(E-mail : agro.shish@gmail.com)
(Received: 29 December, 2012, Accepted: 26 July, 2013)

SUMMARY

A field experiment entitled “Effect of Bio-regulators application on productivity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in arid conditions of Western Rajasthan” was conducted on loamy sand soil of the Agronomy farm, College of Agriculture, Bikaner during rabi season of 2009-2010. The experiment was comprised of three bio-regulators (500 ppm thiourea, 100 ppm thioglycolic acid and 100 ppm salicylic acid) spray at 40 and 60 DAS with water spray. Foliar spray of bio-regulators (TU, TGA and SA) significantly improved plant height, dry matter accumulation, effective tillers per meter row length, spike length grains per spike and test weight of barley over water spray control. The maximum grain yield (2743 kg/ha), straw yield (3101kg/ha), biological yield (5844 kg/ha), harvest index (47.10 %), protein and total protein content were obtained with 500 ppm thiourea at 40 and 60 DAS.

Key words: Bioregulators thiourea, thioglycolic acid, salicylic acid, productivity, Hordeum vulgare

106-111

YIELD, QUALITY AND ECONOMICS OF OAT FODDER (AVENA SATIVA L.) AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN AND VARIETIES

 EDWIN LUIKHAM*, SONIA KAMEI AND P. S. MARIAM ANAL

College of Agricultural
Central Agricultural University, Iroisemba, Imphal-795004,
Manipur, India
*(e-mail : eduikhan@rediffmail.com)
(Received: 20 September, 2012, Accepted: 15 January, 2013)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season of 2008-09 at the experimental field of college of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal to evaluate the effect of nitrogen levels on the yield and quality of promising varieties of oat. On the basis of results, the highest green and dry fodder yield, protein content and protein yield was associated with the application of 80 kg N/ha in the variety JHO-822. Maximum gross and net income and benefit cost ratio were associated in the same treatment.

Key words: Oat, nitrogen, yield, quality and economics.

112-114

GREEN FODDER AND COB YIELD OF SWEET CORN (ZEA MAYS. L. SSP. SACCHARATA) VARIETIES AT VARYING FERTILITY LEVELS

 M. SUTHAR1, D. SINGH2*, V. NEPALIA3

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology
Udaipur, Rajasthan-313 001 (India)
*(e-mail : dilipagron@gmail.com)
(Received : 28 March, 2013, Accepted : 20 July2013

SUMMARY

A field experiment entitled ‘Green fodder and cob yield of sweet corn (Zea mays. L. Ssp. saccharata) varieties at varying fertility levels was conducted at Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur during kharif 2011, with objective to evaluate production potential of sweet corn varieties under prevailing agro-climatic conditions and to work out optimum fertilizer dose for sweet corn varieties. The treatment consisted of combinations of four sweet corn varieties (‘Sugar 75’, ‘Win orange’, ‘Madhuri’ and ‘Bright Jean’) and four fertility levels (70 + 30, 90 + 40, 110 + 50 and 130 + 60 kg N + P2O5/ha). With highest green fodder (26.54t/ha) and green cob yield (12.66 t/ha) ‘Sugar-75’ proved best and economically profitable (Net returns Rs.127817 ha-1 and BC ratio 6.0) compared to rest of varieties. Quality of grain of ‘Sugar-75’ estimated in terms of nutrient uptake, protein content, total soluble solids (TSS), moisture content and total digestive nutrient (TDN) content, and protein content green fodder proved best compared to other varieties. Application of 90 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha recorded significantly higher green cob (9.97 t/ha) green fodder (19.97 t/ha) yield over 70 kg N + 30 kg P2O5/ha and proved economically beneficial compared to its lower level. TSS content of grain and TDN of green fodder did not influenced significantly under fertilizer levels, however, moisture content and protein content of cobs responded significantly up to 90 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ ha.

Key words: Sweet corn, Fertilizer, Green cob & fodder yield, quality and economics.

115-118

VARIABILITY AND CHARACTER ASSOCIATION STUDIES AMONG MICROMUTANTS OF FORAGE RICE BEAN

G.B.DASH

AICRP on Forage Crops
Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology,
Bhubaneswar 751003, India.
*(gokulbdash@gmail.com)
(Received: 1 July, 2013, Accepted: 20 July, 2013)

SUMMARY

Genetic variability, coefficient of variation, genetic advance and character association for 10 characters were studied in 36 micromutants of forage rice bean variety Tikabali Local developed by induced mutagenesis of EMS, NG, MH and Gamma- rays. Significant variability was observed for all the 10 characters. The heritability estimate was high for days to flowering, branches per plant, branch length, leaf weight and dry matter per plant. Green fodder yield had positive and significant correlation with days to flowering, main stem length, branches/plant, branch length, leaves/ plant, leaf weight and stem weight both at phenotypic and genotypic level. Path coefficient analysis revealed that leaves/plant and days to flowering had high positive direct effect on fodder yield while branches/plant and branch length had moderate direct effect. Therefore while formulating selection criteria for improvement of green fodder yield in rice bean characters like days to flowering, main stem length, branches/plant, leaves/plant, leaf weight and stem weight should be given preference.

Key words: Mutagenesis, variability, correlation, path coefficient and rice bean

119-121

EFFECT OF TIME OF SOWING, SEED RATE AND PLANTING GEOMETRY ON GREEN FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY OF FODDER OAT

B. G. SHEKARA* AND H. C. LOHITHASWA

AICRP on Forage crops
Zonal Agricultural Research Station,
V. C. Farm, Mandya, Karnataka-571405 (India
(*e-mail : shekara_gundanaik@rediffmail.com)
(Received: 29 August, 2012, Accepted: 15 April, 2013)

SUMMARY

Present study was carried out during rabi seasons, 2009-10 and 2010-11 at at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Vishweswaraiah Canal Farm, Mandya (Karnataka) to find out optimum time of sowing, seed rate and planting geometry for higher green forage yield and quality. The results revealed that sowing oat during 2nd fornight of October recorded significantly higher green forage, dry matter and crude protein yield. The seed rate of 120 kg/ha at 25cm x 10 cm spacing exhibited significantly higher green forage, dry matter and crude protein, and also recorded higher net monetary and benefit : cost ratio.

Key words: Oat, sowing, time seed rate, planting geometry, green forage yield and quality

122-124

Effect of fertilizer and cutting management on dry forage yield of  Iseilema laxum grass in Bundelkhand region (U.P.)

Neel Ratan and U.N. Singh*

Department of Botany, D.V. Postgraduate College,
Orai – 285001 (U.P.) India
Email: uma_nath_singh@yahoo.co.in
*Corresponding author and present address: 11- Teacher’s Flat, Rath Road, Orai-285001 (U.P.) India

SUMMARY

The beneficial effects of different management practices (Cutting management, N levels and methods of N application) on dry forage yield of Iseilema laxum grass were studied during 2008-10 in the dry sub-humid region of Bundelkhand region (U. P.) India. The results indicated that no cut treatment (control) produced significantly higher dry forage yield than two and three cuts. Application of 90 kg N/ha recorded significantly higher dry forage yield than lower levels of nitrogen (0, 30 and 60 kg N/ha). It can be inferred from the present investigation that natural grass can be harvested once at the time of maturity and fertilized with 90 kg N/ha to obtain higher dry forage yield.

Key words: Cutting management, nitrogen, dry forage yield and Iseilema laxum grass

125-127

Advances in pearl millet fodder yield and quality improvement through Breeding and management practices

 AMIT  KUMAR*,  R. K. ARYA1,  SUNIL  KUMAR2,  DHARMENDER  KUMAR3,  SURESH  KUMAR1  AND  Ravish  Panchta4 

 Department of Biochemistry,
KurukshetraUniversity,
Kurukshetra (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : amitgothwal@gmail.com)

(Received : 10 January, 2013, Accepted : 25 March, 2013)

 SUMMARY

Pearl millet is quick growing cereal as compared to maize and sorghum and it produces green fodder in short duration. It is a robust quick growing rainy season grass with large number of tillers, leaves and ear heads. Being tall vigorous with exceptional fodder yielding potential, it is indispensable fodder for the animals inhabitants in arid and semi-arid regions of world. Therefore, the development of quality fodder cultivars and management to meet out the fodder requirement for ever increasing livestock population is imperative, as the quality of the fodder is very important issue with respect to the livestock health status as well as to maximize the animal production of milk and meat. An effort has been made to review the progress done so far towards the development and production of quality fodder of pearl millet. The morphological traits, growth parameters, fodder yield and nutritional quality traits, along with toxic components have been discussed in this review.

Key words : fodder yield, fodder quality, contributing traits, pearl millet

1-14

Genetic analysis of downy mildew in pearlmillet

R.  Kumar*  and  P.  Sagar

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : rameshkrgr@gmail.com)
(Received : 18 December, 2012, Accepted : 25 January, 2013)

 SUMMARY

The genetics of downy mildew was studied in 144 hybrids developed by crossing six A- and their six B-lines with 12 R-lines of pearl millet in a line x tester mating design. The six A- lines 81A1 and 8A1 (A1), Pb 313A (A2), Pb 402A (A3), 81A4 and 81A5 and their corresponding B- lines represented five different systems of male sterility and were very diverse. The 24 parents and the 144 hybrids were grown separately in contiguous blocks in 2R × 2.5 m × 0.45 m in randomized block design with two replications in six environments under natural condition viz., early sown non-cut crop (E1, E4), ratoon crop (E2, E5) and late sown non-ratooned (E3, E6) at Research Farm, CCSHAU, Hisar and two environments in sick plot (SP1, SP2) Department of Plant Pathology, CCS HAU, Hisar. The downy mildew incidence was recorded on all plants in the plot under natural and sick plot after 30 days (stage I) and 60 days (stage II) of sowing. The data on downy mildew incidence (%) were subjected to angular transformation for analysis of variance. The analysis of variance was conducted by developing statistical model involving all genotypes–lines (A-, B-), testers (R-lines), A- x R- and B- x R-hybrids, environments and all possible interactions. The combining ability analysis was carried out following line x tester model. The genotypes, parents, lines (A-, B-), testers (R-lines), A- x R- and B- x R-hybrids differed significantly at both the stages but A- vs. B- lines and A- x R- vs.  B- x R-hybrids contrasts did not differ significantly showing no role of cytoplasm in downy mildew vulnerability. The significant differences among lines, testers and lines x testers (hybrids) indicated parental and hybrids variation for general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) variances and effects, respectively, under natural as well as sick plot at both the stages. The fixed effect mean square variances due to general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) revealed that magnitude of sca variances exceeded at 30 DAS and that of gca variances excelled sca variances at 60 DAS indicating that final selection should be carried out at latter stage. The lines Pb. 402A3 and Pb. 402B3 with negative gca effects combined significantly better for downy mildew resistance at both the stages. The other lines combined poor to average with most of the non significant gca effects.

Key words : Genetic resistance, downy mildew, pearlmillet, environment

15-22