Monthly Archives: December 2014

PEARL MILLET IMPROVEMENT FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST DISEASES
Kushal Raj, R. K. Arya and R. Kumar
*Department of Plant Pathology
CCS Haryana Agricultural University- Hisar
(*email: kushalraj2008@gmail.com)
(Received 29 Nonember; Accepted 27 December 2014)

SUMMARY

Bajra is the fourth most important crop, whose cultivation mainly confines to dry land regions. Gene manipulation using conventional and advanced approaches as well as genetic resource conservation and evaluation is an activity that supports the national crop improvement programme to cope with the biotic and abiotic stresses while maintaining high level of productivity, profitability and quality. It’s wild species are tertiary gene pool species as reservoir of important genes such as apomixis, perenniality, fodder characteristics, stress tolerance thereby pearl millet improvement has potential of utilizing interspecific hybridization. Plant pathological research in pearl millet did not receive adequate attention until the F1 hybrids, based on cytoplasmic male sterile line, released for commercial cultivation in India in the mid-1960’s and become susceptible to downy mildew in early 1970’s. The superiority of hybrids over open pollinated varieties for grain yield, uniform growth and shorter duration resulted in substantial increase in area under hybrid cultivation and this favoured incidence of diseases. The crop yield is adversely affected by several biotic factors which cause substantial yield losses and also adversely affected the quality of produce and thus reduce its market value. Among these, downy mildew (Sclerospora graminicola), smut (Tolyposporium penicillariae.) and ergot (Claviceps fusiformis) are of economic importance in major pearl-millet growing areas of the country. Disease management using resistant cultivars is the most feasible way in pearl millet production. Attempts have been made in the past to identify sources of resistance to downy mildew in India Based on resistant sources, several resistant hybrids and varieties were released for general cultivation in India. However, identification of new sources of resistance is required to find resistance against evolving virulence where pearl millet is widely cultivated. Plants use a wide range of mechanisms to resist infection and disease caused by pathogenic organisms. Mechanical or chemical barrier present in the epidermal layer of plant tissue prevent the successful establishment and growth of many potential pathogens. A common strategy of resistance breeding utilizing major genes involves: an effective screening method, availability of diverse germplasm, confirmed sources of resistance, knowledge of genetics of resistance, information on variability in virulence, effective utilization of resistance in breeding, and deployment and on-farm monitoring of performance of cultivar. Different breeding methods i.e. Mutation, Recombination / back cross and biotechnological tools are used for incorporation of resistance / tolerance genes and obtained several interspecific cross, identified genomic regions. In the light of past studies, it is proposed that future downy mildew and other disease management need based strategy in pearl millet should be focussed on based on future thrust.

Key words:pearl millet, resistance, breeding, diseases.

133-146

GREEN FODDER AUGMENTATION FOR INCREASING ANIMAL PRODUCTIVITY- A REVIEW
K. S. SOMASHEKAR*, B. G. SHEKARA, K. N. KALYANAMURTHY AND B. S. LALITHA
Department of Agronomy
University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK,
Bangalore (Karnataka), India
*(e-mail: somashekar.ks18@gmail.com)
(Received : 22 July 2014; Accepted : 20 November 2014)

SUMMARY

In Indian agriculture, livestock plays a pivotal role in the development and progress of mankind with crop production programme as a complementary enterprise. India accounts for nearly 20 per cent of the world’s livestock and 16.8 per cent human population with only 2.3 per cent of the world’s geographical area. In India, there is a deficit of green fodder during summer season. Hence, this paper reveals the various means to augment green fodder production through improved cultivars, scientific fodder management, forage and fodder production as mixed crop, intercrop in gardens, rice fallow areas, natural grass lands, tree fodder, problematic soils, etc. in order to supply the deficit green fodder to maintain livestock’s health and productivity.

Key words:Green fodder, augmentation, animal health, productivity

147-153

UTILIZATION OF PADDY STRAW AS ANIMAL FEED
Anil Kumar*, Vijay K Singh, Narender and Rajender Kumar
Deptt. of Farm Machinery & Power Engineering,
COAE&T, CCSHAU, Hisar-125004
*Corresponding author: anil_saroha@rediffmail.com
(Received : 15 September 2014; Accepted : 21 December 2014)

SUMMARY

This review paper describes the improvement of the degradability and voluntary intake of rice
straw. After the review it was found that the pretreatment of paddy straw should either be avoided or made simple and cheap so that the process of treatment is economically viable. There is a need for improvement of already existing strains of lignin degrading micro-organisms. The large scale treatment methods of feed production from paddy straw should be standardized and the end-product should be evaluated, so that no toxic end-products are present.

Key words:Paddy straw, treatment, value addition

154-158

EVALUATION OF FORAGE SORGHUM HYBRIDS (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH)
S. K. PAHUJA, S. ARYA, P. KUMARI AND R. PANCHTA
Forage Section, CCS Haryana Agriculture University
Hisar-125004 (Haryana), India
E-mail: hisar@sorghum.res.in
(Received : 07 February 2014; Accepted : 29 June 2014)

SUMMARY

Forage as a feed for livestock in emergency period has always been a dire need of the time. Hybrids production offers a solution to this problem. The objective of the present studies was to select the best parents and then utilized them in interspecific hybridization programme to produce hybrids that could provide palatable green fodder over longer period of time. The materials was sown in random block design and evaluated for some agronomic and forage quality traits. Field experiments were conducted during 2012 at Warangal to estimate overall performance of hybrids over the checks. Seventeen forage sorghum hybrids (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and six checks (including two public and three commercial hybrids and (SSG 59-3) released variety) were tested at Warangal. Highly significant differences were found between the hybrids and checks for plant height, number of tillers, leaf length, leaf breadth, stem girth, number of leaves/plant, green and dry fodder yield (q/ha). Some of the locally developed hybrids significantly out yielded for both green and dry fodder yield as compared to introduced commercial ones. The hybrid 56A x COFS29 was unique in combining high forage yield with plant height, leaf length etc. therefore, expected to meet the farmer’s preference in producing high quantities of forage in a relatively short period of time and we can also use 56A male sterile line in future for further hybrid production programme. Along with that quality aspects are also very crucial in breeding for forage crops. Therefore, in future programs, screening for the nutritional value should be carried in the earlier stages of the breeding program.

Key words:Characterization, evaluation, fodder yield, quality, forage sorghum

159-162

STUDIES ON VARIABILITY, CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS IN PEARL MILLET [PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L.) R. BR.] GENOTYPES
R. KUMAR *, S. HARISH, M.S. DALAL, V. MALIK, DEVVART, L. K. CHUGH, P. GARG AND K. RAJ
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : rameshkrgr@gmail.com
(Received : 14 October 2014; Accepted: 27 December 2014)

SUMMARY

A total of 97 pearl millet genotypes were grown in a randomized block design (RBD) with two replications in Research Area of Bajra Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding CCSHAU, Hisar during Kharif 2013 season. The objectives of the investigation were to study genetic variability, correlation and path analysis for eight characters viz., days to 50% flowering, plant height (cm), effective tillers, panicle length (cm), panicle diameter (mm), number of nodes/main tiller, internode length (cm) and grain yield (g/plant) among 97 diverse pearl millet genotypes. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all the characters studied. The characters namely grain yield, panicle diameter, panicle length and plant height showed high phenotypic (PCV), genotypic (GCV) coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were highest for the trait grain yield. Estimates of heritability ranged from 18.15 per cent for effective tillers to 94.80 per cent for plant height, while grain yield showed 88.75 per cent heritability. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for days to 50% flowering, plant height, panicle length, panicle diameter and grain yield indicating the importance of these traits in selection and crop improvement. The result from character association indicated that grain yield (g/ plant) had significant and positive correlation with plant height and panicle diameter at phenotypic level. The genotypic correlation estimates showed significant positive association of grain yield with panicle length, panicle diameter, number of nodes and internode length. Panicle length and plant height exhibited the highest positive and significant direct effect on grain yield. Hence, these traits could be considered as suitable selection criteria for the development of high yielding pearl millet genotypes. Panicle diameter, plant height, internode length and panicle length showed highest positive direct effect on grain yield at genotypic level. Hence, main emphasis should be given to these traits in breeding programme for development of high yielding pearl millet hybrids.

Key words:Pearl millet, genetic variability, estimates of GCV, PCV and grain yield

163-167

EFFECT OF LOPPING INTENSITIES ON TREE GROWTH AND GRASS YIELD UNDER SHISHAM (DALBERGIA SISSOO) BASED SILVIPASTORAL SYSTEM ON SODIC LAND
VINITA BISHT, CHHAVI SIROHI AND B. S. RANA
Department of Forestry
N. D. University of Agricultureand Technology
Kumarganj, Faizabad
(Received : 7 October 2014; Accepted : 27 December 2014)

SUMMARY

The study was carried out during 2011-2012 in Dalbegia sissoo based silvipastoral system raised on sodic land at main experiment station (Forestry) of Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad. The silvipastoral system had Dalbergia sissoo in combination with three stress tolerant perennial grasses viz., Pennisetum purpureum, Brachiaria mutica and Panicum maximum. The investigated area was divided into five equal quadrats (20 x 25 m size) within 0.25 ha area. Of these, four quadrats were chosen for trials of different intensities of lopping (25, 50, 75, 100% lopping intensities) and one quadrat was treated as control (0% lopping intensity). Initial tree height across different lopping intensities ranged from 12.8-15.2 m (averaged 13.9 m) and dbh from 10.8-13.9 cm (averaged 12.4 cm). Across lopping intensities tree growth increments were maximum in rainy season (Tree height increment = 0.20-0.60 m season-1; dbh increment = 0.20-0.80 cm season-1) followed by summer season. Interestingly, there was a clear cut decrease in growth along increasing lopping intensity. Across lopping intensities, the annual green fodder yield for P. purpureum grass was found maximum (33.6-45.5 t ha-1; average, 40.54 t ha-1), followed by B. mutica (19.4-28.9 t ha-1). There was a clear cut increase in herbage yield of all three grasses along increasing lopping intensities under this study.

Key words:Dalbergia sissoo , herbage yield, lopping intensity, silvipastoral system

168-172

YIELD ATTRIBUTES AND QUALITY OF COWPEA AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS ON MEDIUM BLACK SOIL OF GUJARAT
H.P.VERMA*, P.K.CHOVATIA SHISH RAM DHIKWAL AND K.L.REGAR
College of Agriculture,
Junagadh Agricultural University,
Junagadh, Gujarat-362001
(E-mail: hppersoya.p@gmail.com)
(Received: 28 November 2014; Accepted: 18 December 2014)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted during 2012 to study the yield attributes and quality of cowpea (GC-5) as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus levels on medium black soil of Gujarat. The experiment consisted of four treatments of nitrogen levels (control, 20, 30 and 40 kg/ha) and four treatments of phosphorus levels (control, 40 60 and 80 kg P2O5/ha) thereby making sixteen treatment combinations tested in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results indicated the application of nitrogen @ 40 kg/ha give the maximum and significantly higher the number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, test weight, seed yield, straw yield, biological yield, protein content, chlorophyll content and remained at par with 20 and 30 kg N/ha over control. The maximum net return and BCR was found with the application of 20 kg N/ha. Results further indicated the application of phosphorus @ 80 kg/ha give the maximum and significantly higher the number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, test weight, seed, straw, biological yields, protein content, chlorophyll content and remained at par with 40 and 60 kg P2O5/ha over control. The maximum net return and BCR was found with the application of 40 kg P2O5/ha. The combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus levels @ 20 kg and 40 kg P2O5/ha significantly higher in term of seed and straw yield over rest of treatments.

Key words:Yield, quality, BCR: Cowpea, Nitrogen, Phosphorus.

173-177

GENETIC ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN FORAGE PEARL MILLET [PENNISETUM GLAUCUM, (L.) R. BR.]
G. C. SHINDE* AND S. S. MEHETRE
Grass Breeding Scheme, Department of Agricultural Botany,
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413722, Dist Ahmednagar (Maharashtra)
(e-mail:goraksh2010@gmail.com)
(Received 30 September 2014 Accepted: 27 December 2014)

SUMMARY

Genetic analysis was carried out in 28 F1 hybrids and their 8 diverse parents for green fodder yield, its quality and other related traits in Kharif and Summer seasons. Predominant non-additive type gene effects for green forage yield as well as other yield contributing and quality traits were observed. The parents Giant bajra, RHRB-282 and RHRB-278 had good gca effects for green forage yield and component characters. The cross combinations viz., Giant bajra x RHRB-282, PMFT-907 x RHRB-278, RHRB-259 x RHRB-260, Giant bajra x PMFT-905 and PMFT-905 x PMFT-907 displayed significant and positive sca effects and heterosis over mid and better parent for green forage yield and other related traits in both the seasons. It is suggested to undertake multiple crossing programme among high general combiners for various traits and desirable segregants in early generation may be subjected to biparental mating for the accumulation of favourable genes for various forage yield and quality traits.

Key words:Pearl millet, genetic analysis, combining ability, Gene action, heterosis

178-185

SOIL PROPERTIES AND SEED YIELD AS INFLUENCED BY ORGANIC AMENDMENTS IN MUSTARD-CLUSTER BEAN CROPPING SEQUENCE
D. V. PATHAK AND S. S. YADAV
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal (India)-123501
(Email: pathak_dv@rediffmail.com)
(Received: 5 September,2014; Accepted:3 December 2014)

SUMMARY

The different organic amendments which were tested during investigations included direct incorporation of mustard and cluster bean crop residues in the field, green manuring, use of vermicompost and FYM prepared for mustard residue and cattle dung in 1:1 ratio. All the three soil amendments viz; vermicompost, crop residue and farm yard manure@ 10.0 t/ha at 50 per cent and 75 per cent RDF significantly increased seed yield in both the crops –cluster bean as well as rapeseed mustard during 2nd and 3rd years of experimentation. Nutrients uptake in terms of N, P and K was also positively affected by soil amendments in both crops. Physical properties like bulk density (BD), water holding capacity (WHC) and infiltration rate numerically but non-significantly increased in organically amended plots when compared with the control or with initial values. Bulk density decreased from 1.47g/cc to1.44g/cc, while the water holding capacity and infiltration rate increased from 23.4 per cent to 23.7 per cent and 2.76 to 2.79 cm/hr; respectively, in organically amended plots. There was slight decline in soil pH in the plots amended with soil amendments, but this decline was non significant. EC was not affected by treatments. Organic carbon (OC per cent), available N and available P were significantly affected by organic amendments. Biological properties in terms of dehydrogenase activity (DHA), alkaline phosphatase activity and viable microbial count significantly varied in treated plots as compared with 50 per cent RDF/75 per cent RDF alone or over with initial values. Increase in seed yield of mustard due to organic amendments was non significant during first year of investigation. However, these values were found to be significant over respective doses of fertilizers in 2nd and 3rd years of investigations.

Key words:Organic amendments, soil properties, mustard residue, cluster bean, dehydrogenase.

186-191

EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND INITIAL PERIOD OF CUTTING ON SEED PRODUCTION OF OATS (AVENA SATIVA L.)
PRABHJOT SINGH, VINOD SHARMA AND SHILPA KAUSHAL
Department of Agronomy, Forages and Grassland Management,
CSK HPKV, Palampur-176062, India
e-mail: vinodksharma63@gmail.com
(Received: 11 September 2014; Accepted: 13 December 2014)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2010-11 at Research Farm of Department of Agronomy, Forages and Grassland Management, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, to study the effect of sowing dates and initial period of cutting on seed yield of oat (Avena sativa L.). Sowing of crop on 15th October recorded highest seed and straw yield than that of 30th October and 14th November. Variety Palampur-1 registered highest seed and straw yield. The initial cutting at 60 days after sowing recorded significantly highest seed (1160 kg/ha) and straw (3531kg/ha) yield over the initial cutting at 75 and 90 days after sowing.

Key words:Sowing dates, initial cutting, seed production, oat

192-194

PERFORMANCE OF SWEET CORN (ZEA MAYS L. Ssp. SACCHARATA) VARIETIES AT VARIYING FERTILITY LEVELS
S.K. DHAKA, DILIP SINGH, V. NEPALIA SULOCHANA and J. DHEWA
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313001(Raj.)
*(e-mail: dilipagron@gmail.com)
(Received: 16 June 2014; Accepted:29 November 2014)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2013 to select best sweet corn variety for green cobs, green fodder and to evaluate optimum fertility levels. The treatment consisted combinations of four sweet corn varieties (Madhuri, Hi-Brix-51, Misthi, and Sugar-75) and four fertility fertilizer levels (70 + 30, 90 + 40, 110 + 50 and 130 + 60 kg N + P2O5 ha-1). With highest green cobs (92.9 q/ha), green fodder yield (204.0 q/ha), its total digestible nutrient (90.8 %), total soluble solids of grain of green fodder (12.48%), protein (4.91%), green cobs yield (126.9), net returns (94081 ` ha-1) and B:C ratio (4.9), the sweet corn variety “Sugar-75” proved economically profitable. The N and P uptake by grain and stover of “Sugar-75” were significantly higher over rest of varieties. At harvest, sweet corn varieties failed to influence P status of soil, however, N status significantly decrease in “Sugar-75” compared to rest of the varieties. Application of 90 kg N + 40 kg P2O5/ha economically proved optimum profitable dose for green cobs, fodder and its quality. Further increase in fertility level failed to influence these parameters significantly. Phosphorus status of soil did not influenced significantly under different fertility level, however, nitrogen status of soil increase with increasing level of nitrogen.

Key words: Sweet corn, green fodder and cob yields, fertility levels and economics

195-198

INTRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT GRASSES MIXED WITH LEGUME ON WASTELANDS
P C CHAPLOT
Directorate of Extension Education
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology,
Udaipur – 313001 (Rajasthan), India
Email: pcchaplot@gmail.com
(Received : 7 October 2014; Accepted : 27 December 2014)

SUMMARY

A trial was conducted under National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Agriculture at village Maruwas district Udaipur, Rajasthan, India to evaluate the effect of over-seeding of different grasses sown in pure as well as mix stand with Stylosanthes hamata in 3:1 ratio on wastelands. The results revealed that sowing of Cenchrus ciliaris, Cenchrus setigerus, Sehima nervosum, Dichanthium annulatum. Chrysopogon fulvus and Pennisetum pedicellatum pure as well as in mixture with Stylosanthes hamata in 3:1 ratio gave maximum dry forage yield which was significantly higher over control (no introduction). On mean basis, the extent of increases in dry forage yield were to the tune of 109 to 134 per cent. Among grass species, C. setigerus, C. ciliaris and Chrysopogon fulvus grown in mixture with S. hamata recorded higher grass productivity on wastelands

Key words:sustainable, forage grasses, legumes, wasteland improvement

199-200