Monthly Archives: December 2015

ESTIMATES OF HERITABILITY, HETEROSIS AND INBREEDING DEPRESSION FOR YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN MAIZE
PREETI SHARMA, M. S. PUNIA AND M. C. KAMBOJ
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
(e-mail : sharmapreeti.genetics@gmail.com)
(Received : 05 September 2015; Accepted : 28 December 2015)

SUMMARY

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the six single cross hybrids and their F2 populations developed from crossing and selfing between five inbred lines of maize were evaluated at experimental area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University Regional research Station, Uchani, Karnal during 2013-14 to estimate heritability, genetic advance, heterosis and inbreeding depression for 15 quantitative traits. Highly significant heterosis over better parents was found for all the characters, correlated that with inbreeding depression for all traits. The highly significant positive heterosis to better parent was observed for most studied traits, indicating that dominance direction was towards the best parent except for days to 50 per cent taselling, days to 50 per cent silking and days to maturity in all the six crosses which showed highly significant negative heterosis over better parent indicating that dominance direction was towards the lower/inferior parent. Selfing caused a significant decrease in the measurements of all the characters taken in all selfed (F2) populations, except for days to tasseling, days to silking and days to maturity which has showed an increase in magnitude. Narrow sense heritability and genetic advance were low in most of the cases due to the prevalence of non-additive gene action in controlling the genetic variation of the most of the studied traits. The inbred lines and hybrids revealed good potential for yield and quality traits and can be used as parents for crosses between improved populations or inbred lines developed from them.

Key words:Heterosis, hybrids, QPM, inbred, gene action, heritability

139-146 new

STUDIES ON COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
B. V. VARAPRASAD AND D. SHIVANI
Agricultural Research Station, Madhira (Telangana), India
Professor Jayashankar Telangana
State Agricultural University
(e-mail : rishith_sree@rediffmail.com)
(Received : 22 September 2015; Accepted : 05 December 2015)

SUMMARY

The experiment was carried out involving a set of 60 crosses along with 19 parents and three checks for estimating combining ability variances and effects for yield and its attributing traits at Agricultural Research Station, Madhira, Telangana during rabi 2012-13.The differences among the parents, parents vs. hybrids and hybrids were observed to be significant for all the characters studied sca variances were higher than gca variances indicating the predominance of non-additive gene action. The parents, MRC 1112, MRC 1123, MRC 1176, MRC 1604 and BML 13 recorded positive significant gca effects, while MRC 1176 x BML 7, MRC 1179 x BML 13, MRC 1358 x BML 13, MRC 1556 x BML 13, MRC 1561 x BML 5 and MRC 1604 x BML 7 were good crosses for ear length. The parents MRC 1123, MRC 1271, MRC 1604 and BML 13 exhibited significant positive gca effects indicating that they were good general combiners for 100-seed. For grain yield, MRC 1123, MRC 1604 and BML 13 recorded significant positive gca effects and could be utilized in the development of hybrids, synthetics and composites.

Key words:Maize, combining ability, gca, sca

147-151

HETEROTIC RESPONSES IN YIELD COMPONENT TRAITS IN FABABEAN (VICIA FABA L.)
S. K. BISHNOI, J. S. HOODA AND PREETI SHARMA
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
(e-mail : skbishnoi.ars@gmail.com)
(Received : 10 October 2015; Accepted : 30 November 2015)

SUMMARY

The present investigation was carried out during the year 2013-14 at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar with the objective to estimate heterotic responses in yield component traits in 48 hybrid combinations constituted by 16 fababean genotypes of diverse origins across the world. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications and observations were made on 10 randomly selected plants for 10 yield component traits. Significant positive as well as negative heterosis was observed for plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of pod clusters per plant, pod length, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant. However, only negative significant heterosis was observed for number of days to 50 per cent flowering and number of days to maturity. The mean performance of the parents and their respective crosses has also been presented in the paper along with per cent heterosis for individual cross. Character-wise better performing and poor performing crosses have also been given. The present study is supposed to help select parents to produce overall better performing and thus better yielding hybrid combinations. Moreover, further evaluation of the better performing crosses in the present study may help improve yield in fababean along with an insight to help understand the way heterotic combinations behave in this crop.

Key words:Vicia faba, fababean, heterosis, yield component traits

152-159

RELATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DUAL PURPOSE OAT AND BARLEY GENOTYPES FOR GREEN FODDER AND SEED YIELD IN ARID RAJASTHAN
N. K. SHARMA
Directorate of Research
S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University,
Bikaner-334 006 (Rajasthan), India
(e-mail : nksharmaars@yahoo.co.in)
(Received : 07 December 2015; Accepted : 28 December 2015)

SUMMARY

Sixteen genotypes of barley and eight genotypes of oat were evaluated for green fodder and seed yield during rabi 2012-13 at Agricultural Research Station, Keshwana, Jalore (Rajasthan). Green fodder yield of oat genotypes ranged between 56.00 and 130.33 q/ha with the average of 94.28 q/ha; however, in barley it varied between 119.50 and 238.50 q/ha with the average of 178.70 q/ha at 53 days after sowing. The seed yield of regenerated oat varied between 6.98 and 20.57 q/ha with the average yield of 14.50 q/ha; and in barley it ranged between 19.79 and 47.43 q/ha with the average of 31.29 q/ha. This high degree of variability among genotypes of oat and barley revealed a good scope of selection. Genotypes OS-387, JO-09-504, JHO-2012-5, JHO-822 and UPO-212 of oat and RD-2035, BH-971, Azad, UPB-1035, UPB-1036, UPB-1034, RD-2715 and RD-2552 of barley appeared relatively better for green fodder and seed yield in dual purpose cultivation. Relative performance of these two species revealed that plant height and green fodder yield of fresh crop and seed yield of regenerated crop were higher in barley; however, plant height and biological yield of regenerated crop were found higher in oat. Total income received from green fodder, seed and straw yield of barley was Rs. 104262.00/ha, whereas it was Rs. 81710.00 in oat. Therefore, cultivation of dual purpose barley was found more profitable than oat in arid Rajasthan.

Key words:Barley, dual purpose, genotypes, green fodder, oat, seed yield, varieties

160-163

USE OF COMBINING ABILITY, HERITABILITY AND GENETIC ADVANCE IN BREEDING PROGRAMMES
I. S. PANWAR, R. K. ARYA, DIVYA PHOUGAT AND S. K. PAHUJA
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
(e-mail : isp.panwar@gmail.com)
(Received : 12 October 2015; Accepted : 15 December 2015)

SUMMARY

The choice of suitable parents for producing desirable hybrids is most important and fundamental step in hybridisation programmes since certain combinations produce much superior offspring than others involving apparently equally promising parents. The knowledge about the combining ability effects of the genotypes may help the plant breeder in selecting parents which when crossed would produce more desirable segregates. Biometrical methods like diallel, partial diallel and line x tester may be used for testing the combining ability of parents and their hybrids at an early stage of the programme. Further, estimates of heritability also serve as a useful guide to the plant breeder. If heritability of a character is high than selection would be much easier. But for a character with low heritability, selection will be difficult. The degree of heritability should not be taken as sole criterion while drawing conclusions about the expected genetic gain. Hence, heritability estimates along with expected genetic advance are usually more helpful than heritability value alone.

Key words:Combining ability, heritability, genetic advance, breeding programmes

164-169

YIELD AND QUALITY OF SINGLE CUT FORAGE SORGHUM GENOTYPES TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS

SATPAL, B. S. DUHAN1, U. N. JOSHI, A. S. GODARA2, SATYAWAN ARYA AND NEELAM
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
(e-mail : satpal.fpj@gmail.com)
(Received : 30 September 2015; Accepted : 5 December 2015)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted at Hisar (Haryana), India during the rainy (kharif) season of 2014 to study the response of different nitrogen and phosphorus levels on the yield and quality of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genotypes. Sorghum genotypes SPV 2185, SPV 2191, HC 308, CSV 21F and CSV 30F were planted at 50 per cent of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), 75 per cent of RDF, RDF and 125 per cent of RDF, where RDF was 80 kg N and 40 kg P2O5/ha. Among genotypes, SPV 2191 recorded maximum green fodder yield (408.19 q/ha), which was on a par with HC 308, SPV 2185, CSV 30F and significantly superior over CSV 21F (301.85 q/ha). The dry matter yield (109.89 q/ha) was highest under CSV 30F genotype, which was on a par with HC 308 and SPV 2191 but significantly superior over SPV 2185 and CSV 21F. The dry matter yield of CSV 30F was 14.57 and 25.18 per cent higher over SPV 2185 and CSV 21F, respectively. The plant height of CSV 30F (312.33 cm) was significantly higher over rest of the genotypes. CSV 30F took maximum number of days for flowering i. e. 84.30 days, whereas the genotypes HC 308 and CSV 21F completed their duration of 50 per cent flowering after a period of 73 days after sowing. The maximum leaf area index was recorded with SPV 2191 (5.37), which was significantly superior over rest of the genotypes. Among different fertilizer levels, the application of 125 per cent of RDF (100 kg N and 50 kg P2O5/ha) recorded significantly higher green fodder yield (428.47 q/ha), dry matter yield (113.27 q/ha), leaf area index (5.45) and crude protein yield (11.46 q/ha) than other treatments except application of RDF (80 kg N and 40 kg P2O5/ha). The application of 100 kg N and 50 kg P2O5 /ha also recorded significantly higher crude protein (10.15%), in vitro dry matter digestibility (53.06%) and digestible dry matter (60.38 q/ha), which was significantly superior over rest of the treatments. The application of RDF recorded significantly higher TSS (9.83%) which was significantly superior over rest of the treatments. With increasing doses of fertilizers (50% of RDF to 125% of RDF) the HCN content increased from 88.40 to 150.10 µg/g of the fresh weight, respectively. The HCN content at all the treatments was less than the critical limit (200 µg/g of the fresh weight) at 30 days after sowing.

Key words:Dry matter, forage yield, nitrogen, phosphorus, sorghum

170-175 new

PRODUCTIVITY AND ECONOMICS OF BER (ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA) BASED HORTIPASTURE SYSTEM AS INFLUENCED BY INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT UNDER RAINFED CONDITION OF RAJASTHAN
L. R. MEENA
ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research
Institute, Avikanagar,
Rajasthan-304501
(e-mail : lrmeena63@gmail.com
(Received : 21 August 2015; Accepted : 05 December 2015)

SUMMARY

The field experiment was conducted at CSWRI, Avikanagar Rajasthan) for two consecutive years during kharif seasons 2012 and 2013) on sandy loam soil to study the response of grasses and ber plants to integrated nutrient management system. The results of study revealed that grass species had significant effect on yield and yield attributes. Yield and yield attributes were attained higher in Cenchrus setigerus species than Cenchrus ciliaris except spike length. Highest green fodder (19.87 tonnes/ha), dry matter (4.48 tonnes/ha), grass seed (120.18kg/ha) and protein content (7.36%) were recorded in Cenchrus setigerus. Ber Ziziphus mauritiana)leaf fodder (3.93 kg/plant), fruit (36.84 kg/plant) and fuel wood (23.31 kg/plant) were higher in association of Cenchrus setigerus than Cenchrus ciliaris. The maximum gross return of (Rs.104 429/ha), net returns of (Rs. 72 029/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (2.21) were recorded in combination of Cenchrus setigerus and ber plants in hortipasture system. In integrated nutrient management system where 50% RDF of NPK through fertilizers +50% through sheep manure was promoted grasses as well as ber plants resulted increase in green fodder yield by (80.71%), dry matter (35.07%), grass seed (36.14%), protein (26.62%), ber leaf fodder (42.67%), fruits (47.34%) and fuel wood (90.31%) over control treatment (no fertilizer, no organic manure). The maximum gross return (Rs. 122 374/ha) and net return (Rs. 79 652/ha) were realized where combined use of organic and inorganic sources of plant nutrients in grasses as well as in ber plants under ber based hortipasture system. The higher benefit: cost ratio was noticed with 100% RDF of NPK through fertilizers (2.19).

Key words:Productivity, economics, hortipasture system, INM

176-182

STUDIES ON THE SOIL MOISTURE DEPLETION PATTERN IN JATROPHA CURCAS BASED INTERCROPPING SYSTEM
M. K. SINGH, R. K. ARYA, PAWAN KUMAR, V. DALAL AND RAKESH KUMAR
Department of Dryland Agriculture
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
(e-mail : mks.hau.cssri@gmail.com)
(Received : 30 November 2015; Accepted : 24 December 2015)

SUMMARY

In order to find out the depletion of moisture content in Jatropha based intercropping system where kharif crops i. e. pearl millet cv. HHB-67, greengram cv. MH-96-1, lusterbean cv. HG-563 and mothbean cv. RMO-40 were sown in 4.5 x 7.5 m size plots at Forestry Farm of CCSHAU, Hisar. Moisture content was studied at the time of sowing, before first and second irrigations at 1 m and 2.5 m distance from Jatropha line planted at 5 x 3 m spacing. Vertical moisture depletion at 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50, 50-60, 60-70, 70-80 and 80-90 cm depths was also recorded in Jatropha based intercropping system and in control. The results revealed that depletion of moisture content was higher at 1 m distance as compared to 2.5 m distance due to severe competition of test crops with Jatropha plantation. Maximum moisture depletion pattern was recorded up to 0-50 cm depth in both Jatropha based intercropping system and in control. However, higher moisture depletion was recorded in Jatropha based intercropping system than control. Grain yield of test crops was significantly reduced in Jatropha based intercropping system as compared to control during both the years of study.

Key words:Moisture depletion, Jatropha, inercropping system, bajra, guar, moong, moth

183-187

EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND FERTILITY LEVELS ON NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND QUALITY OF DUAL PURPOSE BARLEY VARIETIES
M. K. CHOUDHARY AND P. C. CHAPLOT
Department of Agronomy
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology,
Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India
(e-mail : pcchaplot@gmail.com)
(Received : 05 December 2015; Accepted : 28 December 2015)

SUMMARY

In order to select best suited dual purpose barley variety to work out optimum sowing date and fertilizer level, a field experiment was conducted during rabi 2011-12. The treatment consisted of combinations of three dual purpose barley varieties (RD 2552, RD 2715 and RD 2035), three sowing dates (15, 25 November and 5 December) and two fertility levels (75 kg N+25 kg P2O5/ha and 60 kg N+20 kg P2O5/ha). Among dual purpose barley varieties, RD 2715 and RD 2552 were equally efficient as both registered highest concentration of protein and N and P uptake by green fodder, grain and straw compared to variety RD 2035. Variety RD 2552 had significantly higher concentration of TDN in green fodder than RD 2715 and 2035. Early sown i. e. 15 November crop resulted significantly in higher protein content and accumulation of N and P in green fodder, grain and straw over late i. e. 25 November and 5 December sowings. TDN content in green fodder increased with delay in sowing. Application of 75 kg N+25 kg P2O5/ha significantly improved protein and TDN content, N and P uptake by fodder, grain and straw over 60 kg N+20 kg P2O5/ha.

Key words:Dual purpose varieties, barley, sowing time, fertility levels, uptake, quality

188-190

Effect of ethyl methane sulphonate on callus growth of clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.]
Deepika, H. R. Dhingra, Minakshi Pal, S. K. Pahuja and Priyanka
Department of Botany & Plant Physiology
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India

(Received : 2 November 2015; Accepted : 15 December 2015)

SUMMARY

The present study was carried out to study the effect on ethyl methane sulphonate on callus growth of clusterbean. . The experiment was put in process at department of botany and
Plant Physiology in 2011. Seeds of clusterbean HG 2-20 were injucted with the various doses
of EMS (0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0%) for different duration of time (6 hr and 8 hr). The mutated
seed were cultured on germination media for obtaining explants i.e. cotyledonary node. It was
then grown on callusing media. Fresh and dry weight of the callus was recorded recorded after
one month. From results, it was found that 0.75 per cent EMS concentration was more effective in callus growth, while the 1 per cent EMS was found to the lethal dose.

Key words:Callus, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, EMS, guar,

191-193

CSV 30F : NEW HIGH YIELDING SINGLE CUT FORAGE SORGHUM VARIETY FOR KHARIF SEASON
M. S. SHINDE, V. R. AWARI, V. R. PATIL , U. D. CHAVAN, U. S. DALVI5 AND S. R. GADAKH
All India Sorghum Improvement Project
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth,
Rahuri-413 722 (M. S.), India
(e-mail : vilasawari15@gmail.com)
(Received : 12 October 2015; Accepted : 30 November 2015)

SUMMARY

CSV 30F, a new single cut forage sorghum variety developed from the cross NSS 223 x NARI 111 at Rahuri was found superior in green and dry fodder yield over three checks viz., CSV 21F, HC 308 and Local variety. Average of 44 tests, it gave the green fodder yields of 443.4 q/ha against 413.8 q/ha of CSV 21F and 417.7 q/ha of HC 308 and 400.9 q/ha of local variety, thus amounting to an increase of 7.2, 6.2 and 10.6 per cent over checks, respectively. In respect of dry fodder yield, it gave the yields of 139.6 q/ha against 125.3 q/ha of CSV 21F and 125.4 q/ha of HC 308 and 118.9 q/ha of Local variety, thus amounting to an increase of 11.4, 11.3 and 17.4 per cent over checks, respectively. Besides being the higher yielder, SPV 2057 had tall plant stature (267 cm) and flowered in 76 days. It was tolerant to shootfly (37.4% dead heart), stem borer (20.6%) and leaf blight (4.55 scale), Anthracnose (3.90 scale), Zonate leaf spot (3.30 scale) and Gray leaf spot (4.20 scale). It had higher protein yield (9.67 q/ha), low HCN ppM (56.5), higher IVDMD (50.2%), higher DDM (57.6 q/ha) and more TSS (8.86%). This variety was observed to be more vigorous with higher number of leaves, leaf length, width, girth and leaf stem ratio. Due to distinct superiority in yield and forage quality parameters coupled with tolerant to shootfly, stem borer and foliar diseases were found over the CSV 21F, HC 308 and Local variety. The variety SPV 2057 was therefore, recommended for release by 43rd Annual Group Meeting of Sorghum scheduled on 20 to 22 April 2013 at DSR Hyderabad for the cultivation in the kharif forage sorghum growing states of Zone I (Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, UP, Haryana and Punjab) and zone II (Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) of India for single cut.

Key words:Single cut, Forage sorghum, green and dry fodder yield, kharif season

194-198

PERFORMANCE OF MULTI-CUT FORAGE SORGHUM GENOTYPES TO FERTILITY LEVELS
DURGESH KUMAR* AND P. C. CHAPLOT
Department of Agronomy
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology,
Udaipur-313 001, (Rajasthan), India
(e-mail : kumawat90durgesh@gmail.com ; **pcchaplot@gmail.com)
(Received : 05 December 2015; Accepted : 28 December 2015)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted during zaid season of 2013 at Udaipur, Rajasthan on clay loam soil to assess the effect of fertility levels on muti-cut genotypes of forage sorghum. Among multi-cut forage genotypes, SPH 1697 proved most efficient as it gave significantly higher green (72.54 t/ha), dry (21.02 t/ha) fodder yield on the basis of total of three cuts, net monetary returns of Rs. 58832/ha and B : C ratio of 3.11 with lesser HCN content. The crop fertilized with 100 per cent RDF recorded significantly higher green and dry fodder yield on the basis of total of three cuts over control, application of 50 and 75 per cent RDF. The magnitudes of increases were 67.1, 39.9 and 12.5 per cent in green fodder, and 64.6, 32.5 and 9.3 per cent in dry fodder yield, respectively. Application of 100 per cent RDF also fetched highest net returns (Rs. 59445/ha) and B : C ratio (2.93) as compared to lower fertility levels.

Key words:Multi-cut sorghum genotypes, fertility levels, fodder yield, net returns

199-201