Monthly Archives: March 2017

DUAL PURPOSE BARLEY–AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION FOR FODDER SCARCITY IN SEMI-ARID REGION–A REVIEW
MUKESH KUMAR*, BHAGAT SINGH, ASHISH JAIN1 AND A. K. DHAKA
Department of Agronomy
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : mukeshkumarkainwal@gmail.com)
(Received : 2 January 2017; Accepted : 17 January 2017)

SUMMARY

Dual purpose barley is an excellent alternate crop for fodder purpose due to its good nutritive value, high palatability and availability of fodder during lean period. Barley crop can be given one cut for green forage and the regenerated crop can be utilized for grain purposes. Thus, barley can serve as supplementary crop for augmenting the green forage demand in the arid/semi-arid areas of northern plains under limited irrigations and in hills under rainfed conditions. The economics goes in favour of dual purpose crop instead of only grain crop in forage scarcity areas of northern plains. The crop can be given one cut at 50-55 DAS in plains and 70-75 DAS in hills for green forage and satisfactory levels of grain yield from the regenerated crop can be utilized as feed or food. On an average, 180-240 and 24-35 q/ha of green fodder and grains, respectively, were produced from dual purpose barley. It responds well to sowing time, fertility levels and time of cutting which vary from location to location. The productivity of green forage as well as grain increased to a significant level by using additional 25 per cent of seed and fertilizer dose as compared to the recommended dose. Seed rate can be enhanced to 125 kg/ha from 100 kg/ha for getting higher productivity of green forage as well as grain and 25 per cent higher fertilizer (75 kg N/ha) should be given after cut for maximising grain productivity. Variety RD 2035 is suitable for dual purpose as it is superior in fodder, grain yield and GEY and to get best performance of dual purpose barley varieties, nitrogen (75 kg N/ha) should be applied in three splits i. e. 1/3 as basal+1/3 immediate after cut+1/3 at next irrigation.

Key words: Dual purpose barley, varieties, green fodder yield, nutrition

211-217

SEASONAL INCIDENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF SORGHUM SHOOT FLY, ATHERIGONA SOCCATA RONDANI – A REVIEW
BHUPENDER SINGH*, NARENDER KUMAR AND HARISH KUMAR
SNIATTE, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : bhupi_hau@yahoo.com)
Received : 20 January 2017; Accepted; 25 March 2017

SUMMARY

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench] is an important cereal crop of the world. This crop is
vulnerable to over 150 insect species from sowing to final harvest. Among the insect pests, the shoot fly (Atherigona soccata Rondani) is one of the most important and destructive pest which causes considerable losses in fodder as well as grain yield. Due to introduction of improved sorghum varieties and hybrids susceptible to this insect and continuous cropping, it has become a principal pest of the sorghum. This pest attacks on the sorghum crop at seedling stage causing maximum damage during the rainy season. The larva of this pest attacks on central whorl of the plant and causes ‘dead heart’ formation. Various methods have been suggested to control this pest. Use of resistant genotypes is the simplest method to control any pest without polluting the environment. A number of genotypes have been screened by various workers depicting resistance against the shoot fly. The sorghum crop grown early or timely can easily escape the incidence of this pest. So, the modification of date of sowing can also prove to be an effective method for management of this pest. The sorghum shoot fly can also be managed by using various types of traps. The fish meal and hanging type traps can be used for catching the adults of this pest. For each insect pest, there is also available parasitoid or predator in the crop ecosystem. Natural enemies also play an important role in reducing the shoot fly population, considerably. Intercropping of sorghum with other crops attractive to this pest can also be used as trap crop to reduce the shoot fly incidence on main crop. The intercropping also enhances the degree of parasitism. The seed treatment and foliar spray of recommended insecticides can also be used for effective management of sorghum shoot fly. Botanicals like neem oil, NSKE, karanj oil, Azadirachtin
etc are also used widely against sorghum shoot fly which can reduce the pest population to a considerable level without causing any harm to non target organisms. The combination of two or more control practices may be used to suppress the sorghum shoot fly population below economic threshold level.

Key words: DSorghum, Atherigona soccata, seasonal incidence, management

218-224

FORAGING BEHAVIOUR AND POLLINATION EFFICIENCY OF FLORAL VISITORS ON EGYPTIAN CLOVER, TRIFOLIUM ALEXANDRINUM L.
M. K. JAT, O. P. CHAUDHARY AND A. S. TETARWAL*
Department of Entomology,
CCS, Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar, 125004, Haryana (India)
*(e-mail : nitharwal84@gmail.com)
(Received : 3 January 2017; Accepted : 30 January 2017)

SUMMARY

The foraging behaviour and pollination efficiency of floral visitors on Egyptian clover, Trifolium
alexandrinum was conducted at Forage Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during 2012 and 2013. The maximum foraging rate was recorded in N+P (nectar+pollen) foragers of Apis dorsata (7.2 flowers/min.), P (pollen) forager of Apis florea (7.2) and Apis mellifera (7.1) followed by pollen (6.3), least in nectar forager of A. dorsata (5.1) and A. mellifera (5.5). The maximum foraging speed was recorded in nectar forager A. dorsata (22.4 seconds/flower) followed by its pollen foragers (19.0). The A. mellifera foragers were recorded with minimum foraging speed for nectar+pollen (4.6 seconds/flower), pollen (4.9) and nectar (7.4). The larger bodied A. dorsata carried the maximum loose pollen grains (LPG) on their body (79,625) while the smallest species A. florea had minimum capacity (36,375) and the medium sized A. mellifera was recorded with intermediate capacity (73,250). On the basis of relative pollination efficiency (RPE), A. dorsata was the most efficient pollinators (16.4) of T. alexandrinum flowers followed by the pollen foragers (13.3).

Key words: Pollination efficiency, pollination index, foraging behaviour, Egyptian clover

225-232

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN F2 SEGREGATING POPULATION OF SINGLECUT AND MULTI-CUT VARIETY OF SORGHUM
ANITA YADAV, PARDEEP KUMAR*, K. S. BOORA AND S. K. PAHUJA
Department of Molecular Biology, Biotechnology & Bioinformatics
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : pardeep1@icar.gov.in)
(Received : 15 January 2017; Accepted : 20 March 2017)

SUMMARY

The F2 segregating population of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] of cross HJ 541 (singlecut) × SSG 59-3 (multi-cut) was studied by using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers to measure genetic divergence within the population. Out of 50 SSR markers, 21 were found to be polymorphic which showed 90.3 per cent polymorphism. Cluster tree analysis grouped the 32 F2 progeny lines into two major clusters : Cluster I comprised three F2 progeny lines with parental genotype, HJ 541, whereas cluster II had the remaining 29 F2 progeny lines with parental genotype, SSG 59-3. Genetic similarity among F2 progeny lines ranged from 0.45 to 0.81 with average similarity of 0.66. Parental genotypes of sorghum were found to be most diverse and F2 progeny lines viz., G2, G18, G20, G21 and G29 showed high similarity with multi-cut parental sorghum genotype, SSG 59-3. Hence, these F2 progeny lines could be selected for early variety development from the F2 segregating population in order to meet ever increasing demand of green fodder for the livestock.

Key words: Genetic diversity, SSR markers, Single-cut sorghum, multi-cut sorghum, segregating population

233-237

EVALUATION OF SWEET SORGHUM GENOTYPES FOR FODDER YIELD AND QUALITY UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NPK
M. SHANTI*, R.SUSHEELA, A. V. UMAKANTH1, M. ANURADHA AND T. SHASHIKALA
AICRP on Forage Crops & Utilization,
ARI, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (Telangana), India
*(e-mail : shantigoka@yahoo.com)
(Received : 7 January 2017; Accepted : 11 February 2017)

SUMMARY

Sweet sorghums are high energy crops with better growth and yield than fodder sorghums and corn. These are more palatable owing to their sweetness and highly preferred by livestock. Besides, bio-fuel generation these are gaining popularity as fodder crops. Four states released genotypes of sweet sorghum were tested at different levels of nitrogen for green fodder yield and fodder quality. SSV84, CSV19SS, CSV24SS and CSH22SS were grown during kharif 2013 and 2014. The study revealed that CSV19SS performed better than all genotypes tested in terms of green fodder yield at 50 per cent flowering as well as at physiological maturity yielding 41.5 and 44.36 t/ha, respectively. At flowering, the yield responses were only up to 100 kg N/ha. The fodder crude protein per cent was higher at flowering stage (10.05%) compared to physiological maturity (7.96%), while fibre followed a reverse trend. At physiological maturity, the response was 130 kg GFY per kg of N applied at N2, while it was 85 kg per kg N at N3 at maturity. This indicated more N use efficiency at lower N levels and viceversa. Crude protein also increased significantly from 100 to 120 kg N/ha. Among all genotypes tested, CSV19SS proved superior in terms of fodder yield and quality and hence could be utilized as ideal fodder.

Key words: Sweet sorghum genotypes, fodder yield, quality, N levels

238-242

EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON YIELD AND QUALITY
OF BERSEEM (TRIFOLIUM ALEXANDRINUM L.) SEED

MEENA RANI, SUKHPREET SINGH*, U. S. TIWANA, R. S. SARLACH AND MEENAKSHI GOYAL
Forage and Millets Section, Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics
Punjab Agricultural University,
Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India
*(e-mail : preetsukh44@pau.edu)
(Received : 30 JANUARY 2017; Accepted : 4 March 2017)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted at Forage Research Farm, Department of Plant Breeding &
Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana during rabi 2013-14 to study the effect of plant growth regulators viz., gibberellic acid 75 μg/ml – one spray, gibberellic acid 75 μg/ml–two sprays, cytokinin 50 μg/ml–one spray, cytokinin 50 μg/ml–two sprays, salicylic acid 75 μg/ml–one spray, salicylic acid 75 μg/ml–two sprays, naphthalene acetic acid 50 μg/ml–one spray, naphthalene acetic acid 50 μg/ml–two sprays, water spray and control on yield and quality of berseem seed. The application of one foliar spray of plant growth regulators was applied at flower initiation stage and second spray one week after the first spray. Among all the growth regulators, the application of one foliar spray of salicylic acid @ 75 μg/ml recorded significantly higher shoots/m2, heads/m2, seeds/head, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and seed quality i. e. germination per cent, root+shoot length and seedling vigour index and was also economical.

Key words: Berseem seed, gibberellic acid, cytokinin, salicylic acid, naphthalene acetic acid, seed yield, seed quality

243-247

GROWTH, YIELD AND SEED QUALITY INFLUENCED BY RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION IN FENUGREEK (TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM L.)

SUMIT DESWAL*, PREETI YADAV AND S. K. TEHLAN
Department of Vegetable Science
CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : deswal.sumit07@gmail.com)
(Received : 3 January 2017; Accepted : 30 January 2017)

SUMMARY

Ten genotypes of fenugreek with two sets of treatments (without Rhizobium and with Rhizobium
inoculation) were subjected to assess the effect of Rhizobium inoculation on plant growth, yield and seed quality parameters. The field experimental site was located at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar between 29.15°N latitude, 75.69°E longitude with a mean altitude of 215 m above msl. Rhizobium inoculation positively influenced the plant height, pods per plant, seeds per pod, leaf yield and seed yield. Maximum growth and yield parameters were recorded with Rhizobium inoculation by genotypes HM-348 and HM-355. With Rhizobium inoculation maximum test weight, standard germination, vigour index-I and II and lowest electrical conductivity was recorded by genotype HM-348. Genotypes HM-348 and HM-355 were found superior in all growth and seed quality parameters with or without Rhizobium inoculation. While seed inoculation with Rhizobium culture positively and significantly improved all growth, yield and
seed quality parameters in comparison to no seed inoculation.

Key words: Fenugreek, growth, Rhizobium, seed quality

248-251

QUALITY ANALYSIS OF WINTER SEASON FORAGE CROPS

BRAJKISHOR PRAJAPATI*, AMIT BHATNAGAR AND KEWALANAND
Department of Agronomy
College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University Agriculture &Technology,
Pantnagar-263145 (Uttrakhand), India
*(e-mail : brajkishorprajapati1@gmail.com)
(Received : 20 January 2017; Accepted : 28 March 2017)

SUMMARY

Field experiments were conducted during rabi season of 2012-13 at Instructional Dairy Farm, G. B.
P. U. A & T., Pantnagar (India) to evaluate quality parameters and correlation of rabi season forage crop (imported and indigenous) varieties. The treatments consisted of seven crop varieties i.e. some imported varieties of these crops like Genie oat variety of Oat and Baralfa IN variety of Lucerne, Makkhan grass variety of Rye grass and Barduro variety of Red clover from Netherland have been tested in the present investigation with Mescavi variety of Berseem, UPO-212 variety of Oat and local Rye grass. The analysis of data indicated that among leguminous rabi season forage crops lucerne, among oat varieties UPO-212 and among rye grasses varieties Makkhan grass, were found to have high quality of fodder.

Key words: Dry matter content, cell content, hemicellulose, rye grass, digestibility

252-257

RUST DEVELOPMENT IN PEARL MILLET CAUSED BY PUCCINIA SUBSTRIATA VAR. PENICILLARIAE IN RELATION TO DATE OF SOWING AND WEATHER PARAMETERS

ANNU*, KUSHAL RAJ AND POOJA SANGWAN
Department of Plant Pathology
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : vermaannu06@gmail.com)
(Received : 11 January 2017; Accepted : 25 January 2017)

SUMMARY

Rust caused by Puccinia substriata var. penicillariae is one of the major diseases affecting both
forage and grain production in pearl millet, particularly in the post-rainy cool season (rabi) crop. Attempt was made to find out the effect of rust of pearl millet on HHB 197, HHB 223 and HHB 197 at three different dates of sowing. Rust appearance in HHB 223 was more in comparison to HHB 197 and HHB 67 Imp. The per cent rust severity was more at recommended date of sowing in comparison to early sown and late sown crop. AUDPC was more in HHB 223 corroborating with HHB 197 but less in HHB 67 Imp. There was drastic change in apparent infection rate with adjustment in date of sowing and apparent infection rate was variable at different stages. Rust development was in progression phase when mean temperature ranged between 21°C to 28°C.

Key words: Pearl millet, rust severity, development, weather parameters

258-262

NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND QUALITY OF OATS (AVENA SATIVA L.) AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT AGRONOMIC PRACTICES

INTIKHAB AALUM JEHANGIR, NARINDER PANOTRA, M. ANWAR BHAT1 AND PURSHOTAM SINGH
Division of Agronomy,
Sher-e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Kashmir- 191 112 (J & K), India
*(e-mail : dr.narinderpanotra@gmail.com)
(Received : 15 February 2017; Accepted : 28 March 2017)

SUMMARY

In view of the increasing demand for fodder, there is urgent need to maximize fodder production
within the existing cropping systems. With this objective a field experiment was carried out in temperate environment during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 on silty clay loam soil to determine the impact of different sowing dates, fertility levels and cutting managements on growth, yield and quality of fodder oat. The treatments comprised of three sowing dates viz. 20 September., 30 September and 10 October; three fertility levels viz., 150:70:40, 125:60:30 and 100:50:20 kg N:P2O5:K2O kg/ha and two cutting management viz., single cut at 50% flowering and double cut on 15 December and 50% flowering stage. Late sowing resulted in poor crop growth and reduced green fodder yield to the tune of 42%. Green fodder yield (36.2 t/ha) and nutrient uptake were higher with the application of 150:70:40 N:P2O5:K2O kg/ha. Double cutting practice produced more green fodder yield to the tune of 15.6 % over single cut crop.

Key words: Fertility levels, Sowing dates, Green fodder, Nutrient uptake, Oat, quality

 263-266

NUTRIENT VARIATIONS IN VERMICOMPOST PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRAW WASTES

ANAND KUMAR*, R. K. GUPTA, SHIV KUMAR AND SURESH KUMAR
Department of Zoology and Aquaculture,
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : anand_rozha@yahoo.co.in)
(Received : 5 January 2017; Accepted : 25 March 2017)

SUMMARY

The field experiment was carried out to study the chemical changes in different organic wastes
during vermicomposting with time interval in rainy season in CCS Haryana agriculture university, Hisar during 2011-12. The agricultural wastes like wheat straw, millet straw, pulse brawn and mustard straw were used as substrates for vermicomposting. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was found most useful for conversion of vermicompost so Eisenia fetida was used in preparation of vermicompost. In vermicompost process, several physical, chemical and the biological reactions took place resulting in changes in the organic matter in a certain period of time. Vermicomposting allowed obtaining organic sources of nutrients which were physically, nutritionally and biochemically improved over composts. In the present studies increased the nutrient content in vermicompost so as changes in nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus (NPK) were studied in different agricultural wastes with time.

Key words: Agricultural wastes, Eisenia fetida, straw, vermicompost

267-270

ACCESSING GENETIC DIVERSITY IN OATS BASED ON MORPHOAGRONOMIC TRAITS

RAJVIR KAUR AND RAHUL KAPOOR*
Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics,
Punjab Agricultural University,
Ludhiana-141 004 (Punjab), India
*(e-mail : rahulkapoor@pau.edu)
(Received : 6 January 2017; Accepted : 20 March 2017)

SUMMARY

The present study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity present in the 96 oat (Avena sativa L.) germplasm lines representing the collection from various eco-geographical regions of the country. Genetic divergence among 96 accessions was worked out for various morpho-agronomic traits to generate dendrogram based on squared euclidean distance. Maximum inter cluster-distance was recorded between clusters I and VI (9.06) suggesting significant high genetic diversity among genotypes of these clusters. The best 20 genotypes identified on the basis of 10 per cent higher grain yield than the best check OL 10 were UPO 093, OL 1611, JHO-2001-1, HJ 114, OS 374, OL 1542, A. maroccana, JHO 851, OL 1635, OS 329, SKO 27, HJ 8, OS 363, EC 209408, EC 209402, OL 1714, OL 1685, OS 376, EC 605833 and JHO-2009-1.

Key words: Genetic divergence, cluster, oat, germplasm

271-273

INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF FOLIAR DISEASES OF INDIAN MUSTARD

MAN MOHAN*, NARESH MEHTA AND RAM AVTAR
Department of Plant Pathology,
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125004 Haryana, India
*(e-mail : mmbaghel@gmail.com)
(Received : 4 January 2017; Accepted : 28 February 2017)

SUMMARY

Integrated management of white rust, Alternaria blight and powdery mildew of Indian mustard by
using plant extracts and fungicides as seed treatments as well as in combinations of foliar sprays against these diseases in two varieties i e., Varuna and RH 9801. The efficacy of different plant products like neem seed extract (5.0%), jamun seed extract (5.0%) and neem oil (5.0%) was tested by applying foliar sprays at different intervals for control of all these three diseases of Indian mustard. Among three botanicals, three foliar spray of neem oil (5.0%) was found most effective in controlling all the three diseases in both varieties Varuna and RH 9801. Fungicidal seed treatment with Apron SD-35 (6g/kg) followed by three sprays of mancozeb (0.2%) were applied at different intervals after date of sowing found maximum control of white rust and alternaria blight (70.3 and 82.1 per cent, respectively) in both the varieties. Whereas, the minimum disease intensity on
leaves and pods was observed 10.7 and 8.0 per cent, respectively, in treatment, where two sprays of mancozeb (0.2%) at 47 and 107 DAS followed by one spray of sulfex (0.2%) at 131 DAS, were applied with maximum disease control of 74.6 and 73.3 per cent on leaves and pods, respectively. The significant yield per plot 2.4kg/plot was observed in the treatment where three sprays of mancozeb or two sprays of mancozeb with one spray of sulfex were applied as compared to control (1.74 kg/plot). The results are very important in present context of integrated management with eco-friendly approaches of white rust, alternaria blight and powdery mildew of Indian mustard

Key words: White rust, alternaria blight, powdery mildew, botanicals, fungicides, Indian mustard

274-278

EFFECT OF FERTILITY LEVELS ON QUALITY OF SINGLE-CUT FORAGE
SORGHUM GENOTYPES

KENDRA PAL SINGH*, P. C. CHAPLOT**, GOPAL LAL CHOUDHARY, P. P. JANI, RAKESH
KUMAR AND H. K. SUMERIYA
Department of Agronomy
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology,
Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India
*(e-mail: kptogas@gmail.com ; **pcchaplot@gmail.com)
(Received : 16 January 2016; Accepted 4 March 2016)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted on clay loam soils of the Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College
of Agriculture, Udaipur (Rajasthan) to study the effect of fertility levels viz., 50 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), 75 per cent RDF, 100 per cent RDF (80 kg N + 40 kg P2O5 + 40 kg K2O ha-1) and 125 per cent RDF on quality of single-cut forage sorghum genotypes (SPH 1752, CSH 13, PC 1080, SPV 2185, CSV 20 and CSV 23) during kharif season of 2015. Single-cut forage sorghum genotype SPH 1752 synthesized significantly higher chlorophyll content in leaves as compared to rest of genotypes under study. The lower HCN content in green forage was recorded in genotype PC 1080 as compared to rest of the genotypes. Genotype SPH 1752 exhibited maximum crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract content. While concentration of mineral ash was maximum in genotype CSH 13. The genotype PC 1080 and CSV 20 recorded highest concentration of nitrogen free extract and total digestible nutrient in fodder, respectively. Genotype SPH 1752 proved significantly superior in respect to crude protein, crude fibre, mineral ash, ether extract, nitrogen free extract and total digestible nutrient uptake in dry fodder. The crop fertilized with 125 per cent RDF recorded highest chlorophyll content and HCN content in green fodder. This fertility level significantly increased content and uptake of crude protein, crude fibre, mineral ash and ether extract over lower fertility levels. Increasing fertility levels caused significant reduction in nitrogen free extract and total digestible nutrient content in dry fodder which were highest in 50 per cent RDF but application of 125 per cent RDF significantly increased uptake of nitrogen free extract and total digestible nutrient uptake by dry fodder.

Key words: Single-cut forage sorghum, genotypes, fertility levels, fodder quality, HCN content

279-281