Volume Archives: Vol. 38 No 1 (June 2012)

Advances in pearl millet fodder yield and quality improvement through Breeding and management practices


 Department of Biochemistry,
Kurukshetra (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : amitgothwal@gmail.com)

(Received : 10 January, 2013, Accepted : 25 March, 2013)


Pearl millet is quick growing cereal as compared to maize and sorghum and it produces green fodder in short duration. It is a robust quick growing rainy season grass with large number of tillers, leaves and ear heads. Being tall vigorous with exceptional fodder yielding potential, it is indispensable fodder for the animals inhabitants in arid and semi-arid regions of world. Therefore, the development of quality fodder cultivars and management to meet out the fodder requirement for ever increasing livestock population is imperative, as the quality of the fodder is very important issue with respect to the livestock health status as well as to maximize the animal production of milk and meat. An effort has been made to review the progress done so far towards the development and production of quality fodder of pearl millet. The morphological traits, growth parameters, fodder yield and nutritional quality traits, along with toxic components have been discussed in this review.

Key words : fodder yield, fodder quality, contributing traits, pearl millet


Genetic analysis of downy mildew in pearlmillet

R.  Kumar*  and  P.  Sagar

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : rameshkrgr@gmail.com)
(Received : 18 December, 2012, Accepted : 25 January, 2013)


The genetics of downy mildew was studied in 144 hybrids developed by crossing six A- and their six B-lines with 12 R-lines of pearl millet in a line x tester mating design. The six A- lines 81A1 and 8A1 (A1), Pb 313A (A2), Pb 402A (A3), 81A4 and 81A5 and their corresponding B- lines represented five different systems of male sterility and were very diverse. The 24 parents and the 144 hybrids were grown separately in contiguous blocks in 2R × 2.5 m × 0.45 m in randomized block design with two replications in six environments under natural condition viz., early sown non-cut crop (E1, E4), ratoon crop (E2, E5) and late sown non-ratooned (E3, E6) at Research Farm, CCSHAU, Hisar and two environments in sick plot (SP1, SP2) Department of Plant Pathology, CCS HAU, Hisar. The downy mildew incidence was recorded on all plants in the plot under natural and sick plot after 30 days (stage I) and 60 days (stage II) of sowing. The data on downy mildew incidence (%) were subjected to angular transformation for analysis of variance. The analysis of variance was conducted by developing statistical model involving all genotypes–lines (A-, B-), testers (R-lines), A- x R- and B- x R-hybrids, environments and all possible interactions. The combining ability analysis was carried out following line x tester model. The genotypes, parents, lines (A-, B-), testers (R-lines), A- x R- and B- x R-hybrids differed significantly at both the stages but A- vs. B- lines and A- x R- vs.  B- x R-hybrids contrasts did not differ significantly showing no role of cytoplasm in downy mildew vulnerability. The significant differences among lines, testers and lines x testers (hybrids) indicated parental and hybrids variation for general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) variances and effects, respectively, under natural as well as sick plot at both the stages. The fixed effect mean square variances due to general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) revealed that magnitude of sca variances exceeded at 30 DAS and that of gca variances excelled sca variances at 60 DAS indicating that final selection should be carried out at latter stage. The lines Pb. 402A3 and Pb. 402B3 with negative gca effects combined significantly better for downy mildew resistance at both the stages. The other lines combined poor to average with most of the non significant gca effects.

Key words : Genetic resistance, downy mildew, pearlmillet, environment




Bajra Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : anilbajra2009@gmail.com)
(Received : 12 December, 2012, Accepted : 22 January, 2013)


A field experiment was conducted with nine treatment combinations [three advance hybrids; HHB 94, HHB 197 and HHB 223 and three levels of  ZnSO4 i. e. control (T1), application of 10 kg ZnSO4 as basal + 0.5 per cent as foliar spray 30 days after sowing of the crop (T2) and application of 20 kg ZnSO4/ha as basal (T3)] in factorial randomized block design with three replications during kharif seasons of 2010 and 2011 in the Bajra Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. The hybrids showed variable response to zinc treatments. The hybrid HHB 94 took 6 to 8 more days for 50 per cent flowering than HHB 223 and HHB 197. The increase in the green fodder yield was to the tune of 11.1 and 18.8 per cent in HHB 94, 9.6 and 17.9 per cent in HHB 197 and 10.2 and 17.6 per cent in HHB 223, respectively, with the T2 and T3 treatments, respectively, over  the control. On mean basis, HHB 223 showed 23.4, 18.8, 18.1 and 13.2 per cent more earhead, grain, green fodder and dry fodder yields, respectively, than HHB 94 and 5.3, 7.0, 7.1 and 4.5 per cent, respectively, as compared to HHB 197. The grain yield was increased by 10.6 and 9.0 per cent, whereas dry fodder yield to the tune of 15.5 and 10.7 per cent by T3 and T2 treatments, respectively, than the control (T1). The results also indicated that basal application of ZnSO4 was slightly better than combination of basal and foliar application.

Key words : Productivity, high yield, zinc, pearlmillet hybrids



Harphool  Singh*

Agricultural Research Station
Fatehpur-Shekhawati, Sikar-332 001 (Rajasthan), India
*(e-mail : hpsdvs@gmail.com)
(Received : 17 November, 2012, Accepted : 29 December, 2012)


 A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Fatehpur-Shekhawati in three consecutive rainy (kharif) seasons of 2006-08) to study the effect of hydrogel on yield and water use efficiency in pearlmillet. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam, low in available nitrogen (168 kg/ha), medium in available phosphorus (21 kg/ha) and high in available potash (301 kg/ha) with 0.46 per cent organic carbon and alkaline (pH 8.2) in reaction. The experiment consisting of six treatments was conducted in randomized block design with four replications. The study revealed that effective tillers/plant, ear length, grain weight/earhead and test weight were significantly influenced by seed treatment with hydrogel. The grain, stover yield and WUE were also significantly influenced by the hydrogel application. The highest increase in grain yield was noted with seed coating with 20 g hydrogel+TU+DMSO followed by 20 g hydrogel, 10 g hydrogel+TU+DMSO and 10 g hydrogel per kg seed.

Key words : Hydrogel, geowth, yield, WUE, pearl millet


Mutation induced genetic variability for two important components of fodder yield in berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.)

Usha  Dalal,  R.  Avtar,  O.  Sangwan*,  S.  K.  Pahuja  and  Amit Singh

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : osangwan@gmail.com)
(Received : 18 December, 2012, Accepted : 1 February, 2013)


 Seeds of berseem variety Mescavi were treated with three doses (50, 70 and 100 kR) of gamma rays and three doses (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6%) each of methyl methane sulphonate (MMS), diethyl sulphonate (DES) and sodium azide (SA) to study the induced genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for plant height and tillers per plant, the main components of fodder yield.  The estimates of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were higher for tillers per plant in comparison to plant height which were indicative of induction of wider genetic variability for this trait due to mutagenesis. The estimates of high heritability (broad sense) coupled with high genetic advance (% of mean) were observed for plant height in treatments of 70 kR gamma rays and 0.6 % MMS, whereas for tillers/plant medium heritability with high genetic advance was recorded for all the three treatments of MMS.

Key words : Mutation, genetic variability, fodder yield




Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : vermapk@hau.ernet.in)
(Received : 11 December, 2012, Accepted : 15 January, 2013)


Correlation studies revealed that the characters viz., ear girth and effective tillers per plant exhibited significant positive phenotypic correlations with grain yield per plant, while protein had positive but non-significant. Path coefficient analysis based on genotypic correlation showed high positive and direct effects on grain yield per plant by ear girth and days to 50 per cent flowering. The high association of ear girth and effective tillers per plant with grain yield per plant; their large direct effects suggested maximum emphasis in selection for improvement of grain yield in pearl millet.

Key words : Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.], correlation coefficient, path analysi


Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression in forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]

Suneeta  Pandey*  and  P.  K.  Shrotria1

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics,
JNKVV, Jabalpur
*(e-mail : suneetaalmora@gmail.com)
(Received : 17 May, 2013, Accepted : 13 June, 2013)


The present investigation in forage sorghum {Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench} was carried out to study the magnitude of heterosis and inbreeding depression in fifty four crosses (F1s) and their F2s made by crossing nine sudan grass pollinators with six cytoplasmic male sterile lines in a line x tester mating design. Observations were recorded on yield and quality traits viz. plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, leaf length, leaf width, number of basal tillers, shootfly infestation, total soluble solids, HCN content, protein percent, green and dry fodder yield. Variable magnitude of three type of heterosis (better parent, mid parent and standard) were observed for different cross combinations for all the traits. Based on per se performance and heterotic response for green and dry fodder yield, two best crosses identified were ICSA-271 x UTMC-523 and ICSA-271 x 700R. Response of inbreeding depression was significant in positive direction for most of the characters except leaf width, number of basal tillers, total soluble solids, HCN content and protein percent.

Key words : Sorghum bicolor, heterosis, inbreeding depression, green fodder yield, dry fodder yield


Growth, yield and economics of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] affected by tillage and integrated nutrient management

Arvind  Kumar  Yadav*,  P.  Singh1 and  Kuldeep  Singh

Department of Agronomy,
RajasthanCollege of Agriculture,
MaharanaPratapUniversity of Agriculture and Technology,
Udaipur- 313 001 (Rajasthan), India
*(e-mail : yadav.arvind580@gmail.com).
(Received : 4 May, 2013, Accepted : 17 June, 2013)


 A field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur (Rajasthan) to study the effect of tillage and integrated nutrient management on sorghum productivity during kharif season of 2009.  Results, showed that conventional tillage recorded significantly higher plant height, dry matter accumulation, yield attributing character, yield, gross, net return and B.C. ratio over minimum tillage. Among the INM treatments RDF recorded significantly higher plant height at 25 DAS, dry matter accumulation at all stage of crop growth, yield attributing character, yield, gross, net return and  BC ratio of crop over rest of the treatment. When RDF was applied with conventional tillage, it was found significantly superior over reduced tillage and minimum tillage in terms of grain yield.

Keywords : Sorghum, INM, tillage, yield and dry matter accumulation


Regeneration capacity of F3 progenies of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

Poonam  Yadav,  S.  K.  Pahuja1,  P.  Boora  and  K.  S. Boora*

Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana)
*(e-mail : kboora@gmail.com)
(Received : 30 February, 2012, Accepted : 25 August 2012)


The present investigation was undertaken with the objective to study the regeneration capacity among F3 genotypes of cross between HC308   (single cut) and SSG59-3 (multi-cut variety). The parameters such as plant height, number of tillers, number of leaves, stem girth, leaf breadth and green fodder weight per plant were recorded in each cut. Forty one F3 lines were found to be non-regenerated, three F3 lines were moderately non-regenerated, six F3 lines were moderately regenerated and sixty nine F3 lines were highly regenerated.

Key words : Regeneration capacity, genetic variability, single cut, multicut, sorghum



S.  N.  RAM*   AND  B.  K.  TRIVEDI

Grassland and Silvopasture Management Division
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute,
Jhansi-284 003 (Uttar Pradesh), India
*(e-mail : ramshivnath@yahoo.com)
(Received : 18 March, 2013, Accepted : 30 April, 2013)


A field experiment was conducted during 2007-10 on sandy loam soil at Central Research Farm of Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi to study the effect of nitrogen, farm yard manure and cutting intervals on growth, forage productivity and quality of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) under semi-arid rainfed conditions. Harvesting of Guinea grass at 60 days interval along with application of 80 kg N/ha in combination with 10 t FYM/ha recorded maximum dry forage yield (6.31, 11.59 and 8.17 t/ha) which was significantly higher as compared to 40 and 60 days harvest intervals + lower levels of fertility treatments. Dry forage yield of Guinea grass recorded during 1st, second and third years were 4.25,  8.61 and 5.22 t/ha, respectively. Harvesting at 40 days interval recorded significantly higher crude protein content in Guinea grass than 60 days harvest interval.

Key words :Guinea grass, nitrogen, manure, productivity, quality, rainfed


Biochemical composition of stigma and style in Cyamopsis spp.

Anju  Ahlawat,  H.  R.  Dhingra  and  S.  K.  Pahuja*

Department of Botany and Plant Physiology
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
(Received : 18 December, 2012, Accepted : 18 February, 2013)


Guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] syn. C. psoraliodes  (lamk; D. C. 2n=2x= 14) belongs to family Leguminaceae, is one of the most important kharif legume crops and is well adapted to arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The cultivated species of guar i. e C. tetragonoloba takes about 90-150 days generally for maturation. The flowers are born in axillary raceme on long petioles. The crop is considered strictly self-pollinated. C. serrata Schinz (2n= 14) is a wild, early maturing (40-50 days), while the other wild species i. e. C. senegalensis is also slow growing annual herb with narrow pentafoliate leaves and small pods and matures in 120-130 days. Protein content of stigma and style was nearly identical in all the three species, while total soluble carbohydrate content in C. tetragonoloba and C. serrata was nearly identical (5-6 mg/100 mg FW), while it was low in C. senegalensis  (2.4 mg/100 mg FW).

Key words : Biochemical, composition, Stigma, style, cyamopsis


Variability and character association studies in fodder oat (Avena sativa L.)

O.  Sangwan*,  Ram  Avtar,  R.  N.  Arora  and  Amit  Singh

Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : osangwan@gmail.com)
(Received : 18 December, 2012, Accepted : 20 March, 2013)


The present study on variability and character association in fodder oat was carried out at Forage Research area, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, CCS HAU, Hisar during rabi 2010-11. The results revealed that the magnitude of genotype and phenotypic coefficient of variation was moderate for dry mater yield, number of fellow/m and green fodder yield. The green fodder yield had maximum positive direct on dry fodder yield followed by plant height and number of tillers/m though heritability estimated accomparied with moderate genetic advance were observed for dry matter yield and green fodder yield. 

Key words : Variability, correlation, path analysis, heritability genetic advance, fodder oat


Effect of integrated nutrient management on herbage, dry fodder yield and quality of oat (Avena sativa L.)

A.  S.  Godara*,  U.  S.  Gupta  and  Ravindra  Singh

Adaptive Trial Centre- Tabiji, Ajmer, Rajasthan 305209
*(e-mail : godara_as@yahoo.com)
(Received : 20 September, 2012, Accepted : 20 March, 2013)


A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2005-06 at Adaptive Trial Centre, Tabiji, Ajmer (Rajasthan), to study the effect of nutrient management on green forage yield, dry matter and crude protein yield of oats. fodder, dry matter and crude protein yield of oat was significant. Application of 100 %  RDF along with 5 t/ha vermi-compost (T3), being at par with 100%  RDF alone (T1) and  100% or 75 % RDF with organics (T2, T4 & T5,) produced significantly higher green fodder over organics only (T6 & T7).

 Key words : INM, herbage, dry fodder, qulaity, oat




Department of Agronomy
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
(Received : 18 December, 2012, Accepted : 25 December, 2012)


Field experiment was conducted at main Forage Research Area, CCSHAU, Hisar during kharif 2010 to study the relative performance of pearlmillet genotypes at different nitrogen levels for high forage production. Treatments comprising seven pearlmillet genotypes (JHPM 08-1, NDFB 13, NDFB 11, AFB 4, AFB 3, Raj Bajra Chari-2 (NC) and Giant Bajra (NC) and four nitrogen levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N/ha) were laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The growth and fodder yield of pearlmillet genotypes were influenced significantly with different nitrogen levels. The genotype Giant Bajra significantly outyielded all the other genotypes except JHPM 08-1. The application of 90 kg N/ha produced 53.6, 26.0 and 12.0 per cent higher green fodder yield and 53.2, 25.9 and 11.9 per cent higher dry matter yield over 0, 30 and 60 kg N/ha, respectively.

Key words : Green fodder yield, Nitrogen, Fodder quality, Pearlmillet