Volume Archives: Vol. 39 No 3 (December 2013)

COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROSIS FOR SOME YIELD TRAITS AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN PEARLMILLET

ANIL KUMAR, I. S. YADAV* AND R. K. ARYA

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding,

CCS HAU, Hisar-125004(india)

*(Email: ishwar.yadav@gmail.com)

(Received: 13 December 2013; Accepted: 27 December 2013)

SUMMARY

The present investigation was carried out in Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS HAU, Hisar during kharif season to identify good general combiners and good specific cross combinations and to estimate the extent of heterosis in pearlmillet. The material for present study was developed by crossing 10 male sterile lines viz., HAMS9A, HAMS13A, HAMS14A, HAMS18A, HAMS22A, ICMA89111, ICMA94222, ICMA94555, ICMA95222 and ICMA95555 with five diverse pollinators/testers viz., CSSC46-2, G73-107, H90/4-5, H77/833-2 and 1307 in line x tester fashion. All the 50 crosses along with the check HHB94 were grown in randomized block design with three replications. Data were recorded on five competitive plants for grain yield(g)/plant, dry fodder yield (g)/plant, days to 50 % flowering, plant height (cm), ear length (cm), effective tillers (no.)/plant, ear girth (cm), ear weight (g), total biological yield(g)/plant, harvest index (%),1000-grain weight (g) and protein content(%).  Among the testers, CSSC46-2, and G73-107 expressed highly significant and positive gca effects for grain yield and also for most of its components. On other hand H77/833-2 and 1307 were the good general combiner for protein content. It revealed that the crosses ICMA95222 x CSSC46-2, ICMA94555 x G73-107, HAMS13A x CSSC46-2 and ICMA94222 x G73-107 possessed significantly higher yield and most of its contributing traits. These crosses not only exhibited high sca effects but also expressed high per se performance for grain yield and its component traits. Out of these only four namely ICMA95222 x CSSC46-2 (92.05%), ICMA94555 x G73-107 (77.76%), HMS13A x CSSC46-2 (66.76%) and HMS9A x CSSC46-2 (55.52%) showed more than 50 per cent heterosis over check HHB 94. Standard heterosis over check HHB94 for protein content exhibited by only two crosses HMS9A x 1307 and HMS18A x H77/833-2. These crosses can be further used for the improvement of nutritional quality.

Key words: Pearl millet, grain yield, fodder yield and protein content, gca and sca effects.

39(3) 105-113

Heterosis studies for yield and its attributing traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

S. K. JAIN and P. R. PATEL

Sorghum Research Station,

Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University,

Deesa 385535 (BK) Gujarat, India

(E mail- skjain_sdau@yahoo.co.in)

(Received:  26 August 2013; Accepted: October 2013)

SUMMARY

The present investigation in sorghum {Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench} was carried out to study the magnitude of heterosis, heterobeltiosis and economic heterosis in thirty five crosses (F1s) by crossing the nine different parents in 9 x 9 diallel fashion (excluding reciprocals). Observations were recorded on 9 characters viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of leaves/plant, leaf length, leaf breadth, grain yield/plant, stover yield/plant and 100- seed weight. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes, viz., parents, crosses and parents v/s crosses for all the characters. The crosses SPV 2110 x GFS 5, GFS 5 x GJ 39 and SPV 2113 x CSV 15 showed high heterosis over mid parent, better parent and economic heterosis for grain yield per plant, stover yield per plant and other component traits. In addition to this, crosses CSV 15 x SSV 84, SPV 2113 X SPV 1616, SPV 2110 X GJ 39 and GJ 39 X SSV 84 showed good heterosis for stover yield and their contributing traits. Thus, these crosses in future can be exploited easily for dual purpose attributes by conventional breeding procedure (Pedigree method).

Key words: Sorghum bicolor, heterosis, heterobeltiosis,economic heterosis, grain yield, stover yield

39(3) 114-117

STUDIES ON GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND VARIABILITY IN PEARL MILLET [PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L.) R. BR. EMEND STUNTZ]

 RAKESH CHOUDHARY1, BABUL LAL JAT2  AND K. C. SHARMA3

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics,

SKN College of Agriculture,

 Jobner -Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

(Email:babu_agrotech@yahoo.co.in)

(Received: 2 September 2013; Accepted: 4 October 2013)

 SUMMARY

Fifty genotypes of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum] along with three check namely Raj.-171, ICIP-3616 and ICTP-8203 were evaluated for grain yield and its component characters in Randomized Block Design with 3 replications during kharif 2007. The data were subjected to statistical analysis to obtain estimates of variability, heritability and genetic advance for different characters. Genetic divergence was carried out to judge the genetic diversity among the genotypes. The results indicated the variability showed significant for all the traits. Genetic divergence analysis revealed that genotypes could be grouped into 14 clusters. The genotypes of cluster IX had higher mean value for grain yield per plant, plant height, grain yield per plot and test weight, which can be used as parameters while selecting diverse parents for hybridization programme.

  Keywords: Genetic Divergence, Genetic variability and pearl millet.

COMBINING ABILITY AND HETEROSIS STUDIES FOR YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN FORAGE SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH] TOPCROSSES UNDER NORMAL AND WATER STRESS ENVIRONMENTS

MINAL GOYAL, R.K. BAJAJ, B.S.GILL AND R.S. SOHU

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics,

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.

(email: minalgoyal@rediffmail.com)

(Received: 16 December 2013; Accepted: 27 December 2013)

SUMMARY

Sorghum is an important fodder crop of Punjab during Kharif season. There is deficiency of fodder during this season and increase in productivity through hybrid breeding is an effective solution.  As water stress is one of the major causes for crop losses worldwide therefore there is a need to breed for more water use efficient genotypes. To achieve the objective 15 male sterile lines were crossed to four random mating populations to generate 60 topcrosses to study combining ability and heterosis for forage yield and physiological traits affecting water use efficiency (WUE) under two environments viz., normal (N) and water stress (S). Based on general combining ability (gca) effects, male sterile lines viz., 2077A, NSS1007A, NSS1008A and population RSSV-9 were good general combiner parents for green fodder yield and WUE under both the environments. Two top cross hybrids 94002A x RSSV-9 and NSS1007A x Ramkel had high sca effects and significant heterosis over commercial check Punjab Sudax Chari (PSC-1) for green fodder yield and WUE traits in both the environments. As the released interspecific hybrid PSC-1 faces seed production problems under Punjab conditions, these two high yielding and water use efficient, intraspecific hybrids will help to overcome the problem of hybrid seed production.

Keywords: Forage sorghum, environments, combining ability, heterosis

39(3) 124-133

STUDIES ON VARIABILITY, CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS IN PEARL MILLET

ABHAY BIKASH, I. S. YADAV AND R. K. ARYA

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding,

CCSHAU, Hisar-125004(Haryana), India

(Email:iswaryadav@gmail.com)

(Received: 13 December 2013; Accepted: 27 December 2013)

SUMMARY

A set of 30 elite hybrids of pearlmillet developed at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar were used in the present study. The purpose of the present investigation was the estimation of variability and association between the grain yield and its component characters and to assess the direct and indirect effects of various characters on grain yield. The results on correlation in the present study revealed that in general, the genotypic correlation coefficient were higher than their corresponding phenotypic correlations. The grain yield was significantly and positively correlated with harvest index, ear girth, effective tillers, dry fodder and biological yield in all the four environments. The path coefficient analysis suggested the importance of biological yield as it has direct positive effect and indirect effect on grain yield in all four environments. So the selection for higher yield will be useful if it is based on characters such as biological yield, plant height, dry fodder yield, effective tillers and harvest index as these have significant correlation on grain yield.

Key words: Variability, correlation coefficient, path analysis, pearl millet

39(3) 134-139

EFFECT OF ROW SPACINGS AND NITROGEN LEVELS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SEWAN (LASIURUS SINDICUS) GRASS IN HOT ARID REGION OF WESTERN RAJASTHAN

K.C. SHARMA*

Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute,

 Arid Region Campus, Bikaner-334 006, Rajasthan

(Email: kc_64sharma@yahoo.com)

 (Received: 7 September 2013; Accepted 26 October 2013)

SUMMARY

The field experiment was conducted at Bikaner (Rajasthan) to find out the effect of different row spacings and nitrogen levels on the productivity and quality of sewan (Lasiurus sindicus) grass. Results indicated that closest row spacing viz., 25 cm. recorded maximum fresh forage yield (153.7 q/ha), dry matter yield (51.3 q/ha), Crude Protein content (9.0%), CP yield (464.9 kg/ha), energy ratio (9.83) and energy productivity (544.4 g/MJ). These yields were at par with spacing 50 cm but significantly higher over 75 cm. Whereas, highest values of net returns (Rs.10,558/ha) and B:C ratio (2.09) were recorded with 50 cm apart rows. In case of nitrogen, highest dose i.e. 60 kg N/ha recorded maximum fresh forage yield (177.5 q/ha), dry matter yield (59.2 q/ha), CP content (9.17%), CP yield (543.0 kg/ha) and net returns (Rs. 13,647/ha). These values were in statistical parity with N dose of 40 kg/ha but significantly higher over other lower levels. However, highest values of energy ratio (10.55), energy productivity (586.0 g/MJ) and B:C ratio (2.37) were recorded with 40 kg N/ha. Overall, it may be inferred that for getting higher, energy efficient and economical forage yields, sewan grass should be sown at 50 cm apart rows and fertilized with 40 kg N/ha in hot arid region of Rajasthan.

Key words: Row spacing, nitrogen, forage productivity, protein, sewan grass

39(3) 140-143

INFLUENCE OF SOWING METHODS AND IRRIGATION LEVELS ON YIELD AND ITS ATTRIBUTES OF BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE)

VIMAL KUMAR, A.K. YADAV, SATYAJEET AND J.S. YADAV

Department of Agronomy,

CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004,India

 (Email: styajeet_yadav@rediffmail.com)

(Received: 16 December 2013; Accepted: 25 January 2014)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation levels  on yield attributes and yield of barley under furrow irrigated raised bed system (FIRBS). FIRBS 90cm (3 rows) resulted in significantly higher grain, straw and biological yield as compared to FIRBS 90cm (2 rows), FIRBS 75cm (2 rows) and flat sowing. The better grain yield and straw yield in FIRBS 90cm (3 rows) resulted due to significant increase in productive tillers/m2.Among the different irrigation levels, application of two and three irrigations in barley being at par and significantly increased the number of productivity tillers/m2, dry matter accumulation, ear length, number of grains/ear head, test weight, grain and straw yield as compared to one irrigation. Flat sowing with three irrigations resulted into highest consumptive use of water.

Key Words: Barley, Furrow irrigated raised bed system (FIRBS), irrigation level, yield

39(3) 144-146

PERFORMANCE OF GUINEA GRASS VARIETIES IN SOUTHERN DRY ZONE OF KARNATAKA

V. S. SHASHIKANTH, B. G. SHEKARA, K. S. SOMASHEKHAR AND M. R. KRISHNAPPA

AICRP on Forage crops,

 Zonal Agricultural Research Station,

V.C.Farm, Mandya-571405 (Karnataka), India

(Email:kanthvs77@gmail.com)

(Received: 16 December 2013; Accepted: 27 December 2013)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Visweshwaraiah Canal Farm, Mandya (Karnataka) during Kharif seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2011 to study the Performance of Guinea grass varieties in southern dry zone of Karnataka. The pooled data indicated that variety JHGG-08-1 recorded significantly higher Green forage yield (1007.04 q/ha/yr), Dry matter yield (147.72 q/ha/yr), Crude protein yield (12.99 q/ha/yr) and growth parameters like plant height (78.47cm) and Leaf stem ratio (0.71).

Key words: Performance, Guinea grass, growth parameters, crude protein

39(3) 147-149

SORGHUM GROWTH, PRODUCTIVITY, QUALITY AND ECONOMICS INFLUENCE BY TILLAGE METHODS AND INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT

D.S. RANA, BHAGAT SINGH, A. K. DHAKA*, U. N. JOSHI AND S. K. PAHUJA

Forage Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding

* Department of Agronomy

CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar

(Email: bsdahiya@gmail.com)

(Received: 25 August 2013; Accepted: 25 September 2013)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2009 and 2010 at main Forage Research Area, CCS HAU, Hisar. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. Treatments comprised of three tillage methods (Conventional tillage, reduced tillage and minimum tillage) in main plot and four nutrient management treatments (control, 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (80 kg N+30 kg P2O5/ha) through inorganic fertilizers, 75% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) + 5 t FYM/ha and 50% RDF + 2.5 t FYM/ha + Azotobactor + PSB) in sub plot. The maximum plant height (243.2 in 2009 and 263.6 in 2010), number of tillers per meter row length (18.0 in 2009 and 14.0 in 2010), green fodder yield (362.4 q/ha in 2009 and 382.7 q/ha in 2010) and dry matter yield (104.4 q/ha in 2009 and 110.0 q/ha in 2010) were recorded in conventional tillage during both the years. Crude protein content and IVDMD percent were not influenced significantly by tillage and nutrient management methods. The maximum gross income and net income were obtained in conventional tillage with 100 percent recommended dose of fertilizer was applied as compared to other treatments.

Key words: sorghum growth, INM, productivity, quality and economics

39(3) 150-153

GAAG-1 :  A high yielding variety of Anjan grass for pasture lands of Gujarat

H.P. Parmar, M.M. Saiyad and P.M. Patel

Main Forage Research Station,

Anand Agricultural University, Ananad-388110 (Gujarat), India

(Email: forageanand@gmail.com)

(Received: 12 December 2013; Accepted: 27 December 2013)

SUMMARY

An improved Anjan Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris Linn.) variety GAAG-1 (Gujarat Anand Anjan Grass-1) has been developed at Main Forage Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat) based on mean performance of multi location test centers of the project. The variety GAAG-1 recorded higher green forage yield (214.5 q/ha/year) and dry matter yield (72.0 q/ha/year) which was 44.9 and 51.9 per cent higher than the National Check variety CAZRI-75 (GFY 148.0 q/ha/year), (DMY 47.4 q/ha/year), respectively. For quality point of view, it is also better than National Check CAZRI-75. Anti nutritional parameters viz. Oxalates and nitrates are below than safer limit. This variety GAAG-1 has been recommended for cultivation in pasture lands of Gujarat State during the year 2011.

Key words: Anjan Grass, variety GAAG-1, green forage yield, dry matter yield

39(3) 154-155

EFFECT OF INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ON YIELD AND
NUTRIENTS UPTAKE BY SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR L.)

B. S. DUHAN*
Department of soil Science
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : dr.bsduhan@gmail.com)
(Received : 17 December 2013; Accepted : 27 December 2013)

SUMMARY

Application of recommended dose of N and P increased the fodder yield of sorghum from 41.11 to 108.54 q ha-1 significantly over absolute control and all other treatments. A decrease in RD of N and P at the tune of 25 % , 50 % and 75 % decreased the fodder yield significantly from 108.54 to 87.64., from108.54 to 75.70. and from 108.54 to 66.32 respectively. Substitution of 100 % recommended dose of nitrogen through FYM increased the fodder yield of sorghum from 41.11 to 56.97q ha-1 over absolute control. Application of recommended dose of N and P also increased the uptake of N, P and K by sorghum significantly from 62.25 to 148.70, 7.40 to 19.53 and 53.44 to 151.96 q ha-1, respectively over absolute control and all other treatments. Decrease in RDF N and P significantly decreased the uptake of N, P and K by sorghum. Application of 100 % recommended dose of nitrogen through FYM also increased the uptake of N, P and K by sorghum significantly from 62.25 to77.48, 7.40 to 10.82 and 53.44 to 85.46 q ha-1, respectively over absolute control.

Key words : Sorghum, fodder yield, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium, uptake

39(3) 156-158