Volume Archives: Vol. 40 No 4 (March 2015)

EFFECT OF CYTOPLASM ON COMBINING ABILITY AND DRY FODDER
YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN PEARL MILLET [PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L.) R. BR.]

R. KUMAR* AND P. SAGAR
Department of Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : rameshkrgr@gmail.com)
(Received : 15 January 2015; Accepted : 20 February 2015)

SUMMARY

The effect of cytoplasm on dry fodder yield and combining ability for dry fodder yield and its contributing traits was studied in 144 hybrids. Six male sterile (A) lines [81A and HMS 8A (A1), Pb3l3A (A2), Pb402A (A3), 81A4 and 81A5] representing five different cytoplasm systems and their corresponding maintainer (B) lines were crossed with 12 restorer (R) lines in a line x tester design. The 24 parents (A+B and R) and 144 crosses were grown separately in contiguous block in randomized block design with two replications in six environments, three each (El, E2 and E3) and (E4, E5 and E6) during two years. The data were reported for dry fodder yield (g/plant) and major dry fodder yield contributing characters–plant height (cm), total tillers at maturity and number of leaves per main tiller. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes, parents, lines (A, B), testers and hybrids (A x R, B x R). The differences due to A vs. B were non- significant except for dry fodder yield (g/plant) and number of leaves per main tiller; and A x R vs. B x R crosses were significant except for number of leaves per main tiller. Cytoplasmic effects were estimated by comparing A x R and B x R hybrids combination. The results indicated that a few number of cytoplasmic effects was significant. Both positive and negative cytoplasmic effects were observed for three characters viz., dry fodder yield (g/plant), plant height (cm) and total tillers at maturity. The (A x R vs. B x R) x E component of variance exhibited significance for all the characters except for number of leaves per main tiller. The effects were modified by environment and were more pronounced for dry fodder yield, plant height and total tillers and negative cytoplasmic effects exceeded than the positive ones. The negative cytoplasmic effects were preponderant for dry fodder yield and significant only in one environment which was due to cytoplasm and nuclear-genome interaction. Effect of cytoplasm was more or less equally pronounced on general combining ability effects of parents and specific combining ability of crosses. The effect of cytoplasm on general combining ability both positive and negative was highest for lines HMS 8A1, 81A1, Pb402A3 and 81A5. Array mean performance of 81A cytoplasmic iso-hybrids indicated that all the three cytoplasms had same potential; therefore, any of these cytoplasms can be used in hybrid breeding.

Key words: Pearl millet, cytoplasmic effects, combining ability

209-217

GENE ACTION AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR FODDER YIELD AND
ITS CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN FODDER COWPEA [VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.) WALP.]

B. G. SANJEEV, M. R. KRISHNAPPA, B. G. SHEKARA1 AND P. RUDRASWAMY
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK,
Bangalore-560 065 (Karnataka), India
*(e-mail : krishnappa_93@yahoo.co.in)
(Received : 14 November 2014; Accepted : 21 February 2014)

SUMMARY

Thirty-two hybrids developed following line x tester mating design involving eight lines (high yielding) and four testers (low yielding) along with parents were analysed for combining ability. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the 10 traits, thereby justifying the selection of parents for the study. The mean sum of squares due to hybrids was highly significant, indicating the diverse performance of different cross combinations. Among the lines CPD-31, MFC-09-09 and EC-458505, and NBC-2, IC-1071 and EC-170578-1-1 among the testers were identified as good general combiners. Out of 32 hybrids, CPD-31 x NBC-2 was identified as good specific combination followed by CPD-31 x EC-170578-1-1. The sca variance was predominant for all characters indicating presence of non-additive gene action.

Key words: Combining ability, fodder yield, line x tester, Vigna unguiculata, germplasm

218-221

ALLELE SPECIFIC DIVERSITY USING FERTILITY RESTORATION
RELATED SSR MARKERS IN SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH]

P. CHAUHAN*, P. K. PANDEY, P. K. SHROTRIA, N. K. SINGH, G. PANDEY AND S. SINGH
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technoloy,
Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India
*(e-mail : priyam09chauhan@gmail.com)
(Received : 05 January 2015; Accepted : 28 February 2015)

SUMMARY

A total of five SSR markers were used for the estimation of allelic diversity for fertility restorer gene in 17 sorghum genotypes consisting of five male sterile lines (female), four maintainer lines and eight pollinators (male) lines. The experiment was conducted in UG Plant Biotechnology Lab of the
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (U. S. Nagar). All markers were found to be polymorphic for all sorghum genotypes. Polymorphism ranged from 50% (Xtxp250) to 100 per cent (Drenshsbm 95). Among all 22 alleles, the number of alleles per locus varied from minimum of 2 to maximum of 7, with average alleles of 4.4 per locus. The PIC for all five primers varied from 0.50 (Drenshsbm 95) to 0.87 (TS304T), with a mean of 0.73. The genetic similarity (GS) varied from 0.55 to 1.0 for all genotypes. Among all three clusters, cluster 3 was found to be most diverse having 0.472 allelic diversity for rf1 gene. Dendrogram revealed that male sterile lines ICSA 467 and ICSA 276 showed more genetic diversity with restorers CS3541, PANTCHARI 5 and CSV 15 and these combinations can be used as heterotic parents in improvement breeding programme of sorghum.

Key words: Sorghum bicolor, SSRs, allelic diversity, fertility restorer gene

222-227

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC DIVERGENCE
REVEALED BY RAPD IN OATS (AVENA SATIVA L.)

YOGESH RUWALI* AND INDRA DEO
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology,
Pantnagar-263 145 (Uttarakhand), India
*(e-mail : ruwali.yogesh@gmail.com)
(Received : 18 December 2014; Accepted : 29 January 2015)

SUMMARY

Genetic divergence among oat genotypes from three different geographical blocks constituting nine
oat genotypes viz., KENT, WRIGHT, OS-6, JHO-822, OL-9, JHO-851, OL-88, UPO-94 and UPO-212 was analyzed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA method in Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, G. B. P. U. A. & T., Pantnagar. The results showed that the diversity among oat varieties was high at DNA level. Nine primers selected from 15 RAPD primers could amplify 245 clear and identifiable bands, of which 236 bands were polymorphic, accounting for 96.32 per cent genetic polymorphism. All oat genotypes studied could be distinctly divided into two major groups with the genetic distance level at 0.60 by cluster analysis based on the Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity. The cluster break was further supported by the pedigree relationships among the genotypes. Several unique identifiable bands were also found in different genotypes which would help in characterization of these genotypes. The results found were encouraging and
advocated that RAPD technique could be used for classification, identification and evolution studies.

Key words: Oats, divergence, RAPD, cluster

228-231

CHARACTERIZATION OF ELITE FORAGE COWPEA GENOTYPES FOR
VARIOUS DUS TRAITS

SUNIL KUMAR, DALBIR PHOGAT* AND NABIN BHUSAL
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : dalbir.phogat@gmail.com)
(Received : 18 September 2014; Accepted : 26 November 2014)

SUMMARY

Present investigation was carried out to characterize 20 forage cowpea genotypes on the basis of various morphological characters which were mentioned in cowpea germplasm catalogue of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture catalogue. The investigation was conducted in two environmental conditions. Results revealed that all the genotypes showed same expression in both the environments and found significant amount of variation among the genotypes for various morphological characters. All genotypes showed indeterminate type of main stem and raceme type of layer in canopy; whereas genotypes viz., KBC 2, IC 249141, HC 46, CO 4, EC 3941-1, EC 101980, Kohinoor and CO 5 showed unique state of expression among nine characters viz., incidence of cowpea mosaic virus, seed crowding in pod, texta structure, eye colour, pod shape, pod attachment to peduncle, terminal leaflet shape, twining tendency and flower pigmentation, respectively. While two genotypes HC 46 and EC 3941-1 had wrinkled texta structure with pigmented wings and tan (brown) eye colour with curved pod shape, respectively. Remaining genotypes showed various states of expression in a group of two or more genotypes together. This investigation reveals that classification of genotypes on the basis of DUS traits provided identification of key characteristics of various genotypes which can be used to distinguish them from others and also further investigation of these characters may help to crop improvement programme.

Key words: Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, characterization, morphological characters, DUS traits

232-236

EFFECT OF SODICITY AND NITROGEN LEVELS ON DRY MATTER
YIELD, PROTEIN AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE IN MAIZE

NIRANJAN SINGH*, S. K. SHARMA, ROHTAS KUMAR, RAJPAUL AND SATYENDER SINGH
Department of Soil Science
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : nnirajan1234@rediffmail.com)
(Received : 14 August 2014; Accepted : 30 December 2014)

SUMMARY

The present study was carried out at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. The experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil having initial pH (1 : 2) 8.21 and ESP 7.88 collected from Research Area of Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. Soils of different ESP (15, 30 and 45) were prepared by adding desired amount of NaHCO3 to this soil on saturation basis. The observed ESP were 7.88, 13.86, 31.15 and 43.79, respectively. The first experiment was conducted in screen house to study the effects of different ESP levels (control, 15, 30 and 45) on forage maize crop with fixed 80 kg N/ha. In second experiment, the effect of four N levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha) at 45 ESP level was studied on maize forage crop. The results revealed that the dry matter yield of maize decreased with increasing ESP levels (control, 15, 30 and 45). The maximum (38.82 g/pot) and minimum (15.09 g/pot) dry matter yield of maize were observed at control and 45 ESP, respectively. The plant height and protein content also decreased with increasing ESP levels. The uptake of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S decreased with increasing ESP levels. The reduction in N uptake over control was 10.83, 46.77 and
65.22 per cent at 15, 30 and 45 ESP levels respectively. Non-significant difference was observed in Na uptake by maize, within control and 15 ESP treatments, whereas it decreased significantly with further increase in ESP levels, over 15 ESP. The uptake of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe) in the maize crop decreased with increasing ESP levels. The maximum uptake was observed at control, whereas minimum at an ESP of 45. The results of experiment conducted on different levels of N (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha) on different forage crops at a constant ESP level (45 ESP) indicated that dry matter yield increased with increasing N levels. The maximum dry matter yield (17.11 g/pot) at 120 kg N/ha and minimum (7.83 g/pot) were obtained at N control in maize. The plant height and protein content in these crops also increased with increasing N levels. Effect of different levels of N (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha) on various forage crops at a constant ESP level (45 ESP) indicated that uptake of nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe by maize increased with increasing N levels. The uptake of nutrients was found minimum at N control and maximum at 120 kg N/ha. The results of the experiment conducted on four ESP levels (control, 15, 30 and 45) soil and four N levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha) indicated that overall dry matter yield of sorghum decreased with increasing ESP levels and increased with increasing N levels.

Key words: ESP, nitrogen, nutrients uptake, dry matter yield, protein content, maize

237-242

EFFECT OF NITROGEN LEVELS ON DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF
FODDER TEOSINTE [EUCHLAENA MAXICANA (L.) SCHROD] IN NEW ALLUVIAL ZONE OF WEST BENGAL

C. K. KUNDU, MD. HEDAYETULLAH*, P. S. BERA, T. BISWAS AND S. CHATTERJEE
Department of Agronomy
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Mohanpur-741 252, Nadia (West Bengal), India
*(e-mail : hedaye.bckv@gmail.com)
(Received : 27 September 2014; Accepted : 30 December 2014)

SUMMARY

The experiment was carried out during the kharif season of 2006-07 at Central Research Farm,
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Gayeshpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India which is situated at 230N latitude and 890E longitude and at an elevation of 9.75 m above the mean sea level to study the effect of nitrogen levels on different varieties of teosinte [Euchlaena maxicana (L.) Schrod] in new alluvial zone of West Bengal. The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam alluvial soil. The soil was neutral in reaction pH 6.8, oxydizable organic carbon 0.43 per cent, total nitrogen 0.047 per cent, available phosphorus 46 kg/ha and available potassium 241 kg/ha. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with 12 treatments and three replications. The treatments were first factor teosinte variety with five levels viz., JHT-04-1, JHT-04-2, JHT-04-3, TL-1 and Improved Sirsa and second factor nitrogen with three levels viz., N30, N60 and N90. The significantly highest green fodder yield of 403.13, 447.92 and 473.07 q/ha was recorded with variety TL-1 treatment, N90 treatment and combined effect of TL-1 × N90 treatment, respectively. The increasing nitrogen levels increased plant height, plant population, dry matter yield and green fodder yield. The increasing trend of crude protein was observed with increasing nitrogen levels. Among the varieties, TL-1 and JHT-04-3 performed well in all aspects in new alluvial zone of West Bengal.

Key words: Teosinte variety, nitrogen, fodder yield, crude protein

243-246

GROWTH, YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF MULTICUT FODDER
SORGHUM (SORGHUM SUDANENSE L.) AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT SEED RATES AND NITROGEN LEVELS

K. S. SOMASHEKAR*, B. G. SHEKARA, K. N. KALYANAMURTHY AND H. C. LOHITHASWA
Department of Agronomy
University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK,
Bangalore (Karnataka), India
*(e-mail : somashekar.ks18@gmail.com)
(Received : 15 January 2015; Accepted : 16 February 2015)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Visweswaraiah Canal
Farm, Mandya (Karnataka) during kharif seasons of 2011-12 to study the response of multicut fodder sorghum to different seed rates and nitrogen levels under protective irrigated condition. The experiment consisting of 12 treatments was tested in randomized complete block design with factorial concept replicated three times. The mean of four cuts data indicated that seed rate of 7.5 kg/ha with the application of 30 kg N/ha recorded significantly higher green fodder (79.88 and 76.46 t/ha, respectively) and dry matter yield (18.51 and 17.04 t/ha, respectively) and growth parameters like plant height (153.34 and 149.45 cm), number of tillers/m row length (77.51 and 72.28, respectively), leaf : stem ratio (0.26 and 0.25, respectively), net returns (Rs. 35018 and 31285/ha, respectively) and B : C ratio (2.40 and 2.20, respectively).

Key words: Fodder sorghum, green forage yield, dry matter yield, plant height

247-250

EFFECT OF FERTILITY LEVELS ON QUALITY OF MULTI-CUT FORAGE
SORGHUM GENOTYPES

DURGESH KUMAR* AND P. C. CHAPLOT**
Department of Agronomy
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology,
Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India
*(e-mail : kumawat90durgesh@gmail.com; **pcchaplot@gmail.com)
(Received : 15 October 2014; Accepted : 6 February 2014)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted on clay loam soils of the Instructional Farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur (Rajasthan) to study the effect of fertility levels viz., control, 50 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), 75 per cent RDF and 100 per cent RDF (80 kg N+40 kg P2O5+40 kg K2O/ha ) on quality of multi-cut fodder sorghum genotypes (SPH 1697, SPH 1698, CSH 20 MF, CSH 24 MF and SSG 59-3) during zaid season of 2013. In both the cuttings, genotype SPH 1697 exhibited maximum crude protein, crude fibre and lowest nitrogen free extract, and total digestible nutrient content. While concentration of mineral ash and ether extract was maximum in genotypes SPH 1698, SPH 1697 and CSH 20 MF. Genotype SPH 1697 proved significantly superior in respect to crude protein, crude fibre, mineral ash, ether extract, nitrogen free extract and total digestible nutrient in both the cuttings. Application of 100 per cent RDF significantly increased content and uptake of crude protein, crude fibre, mineral ash and ether extract over lower fertility levels in both the cuts. While application of fertility levels caused significant reduction in TDN and NFE content in dry fodder which were highest in unfertilized control.

Key words: Fertility levels, fodder quality, multi-cut forage sorghum

251-253

RESIDUAL EFFECT OF NITROGEN LEVELS, ORGANIC MANURES AND
AZOTOBACTER INOCULATION IN MULTI-CUT OATS ON SUCCEEDING SORGHUM CROP

UMA DEVI, K. P. SINGH, SURESH KUMAR, MEENA SEWHAG AND PARVEEN KUMAR
Department of Agronomy
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
(Received : 20 November 2014; Accepted : 20 February 2015)

SUMMARY

Field experiments were carried out to study the residual effect of nitrogen levels, organic manures
and Azotobacter inoculation in multi-cut oats on succeeding sorghum crop at Research Farm, CCS
Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design allocating four nitrogen levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg N/ha) and two inoculation levels (no inoculation and inoculation with Azotobacter chrococcum) in main plots and five levels of organic manures (control, FYM @ 5 t/ha, FYM @ 10 t/ha, vermicompost @ 5 t/ha and vermicompost @ 10 t/ha) in sub-plots, replicated thrice. Plant height, tiller number per m. r. l., green fodder and dry matter yields of sorghum were not influenced significantly by residual effect of inoculation. Application of organics during kharif season for oats exerted significant residual effect on succeeding sorghum crop in terms of growth and yield. Among five levels of organic manures, application of vermicompost @ 10 t/ha in oat produced significant effect on all the parameters in sorghum fodder and grain crop viz., growth parameters, yield attributes and yields which were statistically at par recorded in FYM @ 10 t/ha. This might be due to application of higher proportion of nutrients through organic sources in oats and its carry over effect on succeeding sorghum crop.

Key words: Residual effect, nitrogen, manures, Azotobacter, sorghum, oat

254-256

EFFECT OF CUTTING AND FERTILITY LEVELS ON QUALITY OF OAT
PREETI MALIK, L. K. MIDHA*, SATYAWAN ARYA AND U. N. JOSHI
Forage Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : midhalalit55@gmail.com)
(Received : 1 August 2014; Accepted : 25 December 2014)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted at main Forage Research Area, CCSHAU, Hisar with three cutting management (cut for fodder at 50, 60 and 70 DAS) and four fertility levels (Control, 40+20, 80+40
and 120+80 kg N+P2O5/ha). The crude protein and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) content in fodder decreased significantly with each delayed cutting ranging from 50 to 70 DAS. Cutting management had no effect on crude protein content of grain and straw. Crude protein content in fodder increased with increasing fertility levels from control up to the highest level i. e. 120 kg N+60 kg 2O5/ha.

Key words: Oat, crude protein content, fertility levels, grain yield

257-258

EFFECT OF FERTLIZER APPLICATION AND CUTTING SCHEDULE ON
GROWTH AND YIELD PARAMETERS IN OAT (AVENA SATIVA L.)

PREETI MALIK, B. S. DUHAN*1 AND L. K. MIDHA
Department of Agronomy
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : dr.bsduhan@gmail.com)
(Received : 06 December 2014; Accepted : 10 February 2015)

SUMMARY

Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and cutting
management on the yield and nutrient uptake by oat. Results obtained from this experiment indicated that cutting management had non-significant effect on tillering. However, application of N and P significantly increased the number of tillers from 97.2 to 118.3 per metre length. Maximum plant height was recorded when oat was cut at 70 DAS (65.9) followed by cut at 60 DAS (53.8) and then cut at 50 DAS (45.9). Plant height increased significantly from 49.8 to 60.1 with the increase in each successive dose of N and P up to the level of N120+P60. Highest green fodder and dry matter accumulation were recorded when oat was cut at 70 DAS (172.6 and 34.4q/ha) and least when oat was cut at 50 DAS (140.2 and 22.8q/ha). The lowest (106.0 and 20.8q/ha) green fodder and dry matter accumulation were found under control and the highest (518.32 and 93.80 g/m) green fodder and dry matter accumulation were found under treatment 120 kg N+60 kg P2O5/ha. Number of panicles/m and spikelets/panicle were found to be non-significant under various cutting treatments. Lowest number of panicles/m row length (61.79) was recorded under control and it
increased significantly to 75.00 with (F3) N120+ P60 over all other treatments. Seeds per panicle were found highest (66.0) under first cut and lowest at third cut for fodder 62.20 grains/panicle. Application of N and P significantly increased the grains per panicle from 60.60 to 66.90 with (F3) N120+P60/ha. The test weight of oat was found highest (39.23) with the 60 DAS and it was significantly higher over 50 and 70 DAS. However, 50 and 70 DAS were found at par. The highest test weight (39.83) was recorded with the treatment (F3) N120+P60/ha followed by N80+ P40 (38.59), then N40+ P20, (35.16) and least by control (30.88).

Key words: Cutting management, fertility levels, tillers, plant height, panicles, spikelets, test weight

264-267

TRAIT ASSOCIATION IN DIVERSE PEARL MILLET [PENNISETUM
GLAUCUM (L.) R. BR.] POPULATIONS UNDER IRRIGATED AND
RAINFED CONDITIONS

R. KUMAR *, S. HARISH, V. MALIK, DEVVART, Y. KUMAR, KUSHAL RAJ AND M. S. DALAL
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : rameshkrgr@gmail.com)
(Received : 5 January 2015; Accepted : 15 February 2015)

SUMMARY

Trait association among 21 diverse pearl millet populations was studied and the experiment was
conducted in a randomized block design with three replications during kharif season of 2013 in two
locations/environments viz., Bajra Section, Research Area, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (E1) in irrigated and Regional Research Station, Bawal (E2) in rainfed conditions. The observations were recorded on each population for seven quantitative traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height (cm), number of effective tillers per plant, panicle length (cm), panicle diameter (mm), dry fodder yield (q/ha) and grain yield (kg/ha). The mean performance and range in two environments for each character revealed that E1 (Hisar) i. e. irrigated condition was the best environment for the expression of almost all the characters except days to 50 per cent flowering, whereas E2 (Bawal) i. e. rainfed condition was found to be the best for days to 50 per cent flowering. The correlation study revealed that estimated genotypic correlations for most of the characters were greater than their corresponding phenotypic ones. Grain yield exhibited either positive (plant height and dry fodder yield) or negative (days to flowering) but significant association with all the traits in both the environments. Grain yield displayed significant but contrasting values of genotypic correlation with number of effective tillers (positive in E1 but negative in E2) and panicle diameter (negative in E1 but positive in E2). The results of path coefficient analysis revealed that plant height (0.558 and 24.379) exerted the highest positive direct effect on grain yield followed by panicle length (0.086 and 19.369) and panicle diameter (0.164 and 13.483) in both the environments. Days to 50 per cent flowering, effective tillers per plant and dry fodder yield exhibited the positive direct effect on grain yield in irrigated condition and negative direct effect on grain yield in rainfed condition. Whereas productive tillers per plant and dry fodder yield/plant were not reflecting any direct effect in rainfed condition. The study concludes that main emphasis should be given on days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height and dry fodder yield for grain yield improvement as they exhibited high correlation with grain yield in both the environments.

Key words:Correlation coefficients, path coefficients, pearl millet, grain yield

259-263

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF PEARL MILLET DATA TO DELINEATE
GENETIC VARIATION

SUNITA CHAUDHARY, PREM SAGAR, B. K. HOODA AND R. K. ARYA
Department of Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
(Received : 22 November 2014; Accepted : 15 January 2015)

SUMMARY

Loss of biodiversity not only disturbs the process of plant development aimed at genetic amelioration but also disrupts the fundamental services that ecosystems provided to humanity. Assessment of variability is a multidimensional problem. The multivariate statistics can help in a comparative assessment of genetic variability. A set of 66 lines of pearl millet was analyzed for cluster and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA identified six principal components which explained 77.7 per cent of total variability among the 66 genotypes. The PC1 characters –main ear weight, dry fodder weight, total ear weight, grain yield, growth rate and plant height, the major characters of plant biomass and the basis for grain yield contributed maximum 35.94 per cent variability among the lines. The remaining PCs accounted for progressively lesser and lesser amount of variability. The lowest contribution 5.27 per cent was recorded by PC 6, the characters grain starch, starch recovery and ear girth. Only grain starch contributed positively to all the six components. The genotypes 50 (77/371), 3 (IPC-115), 41 (204/2 MP), 12 (IPC-1462), 37 (TCH-37-1), 22 (TCH-10-1), 61 (1307), 14 (862-P2), 20 (TCH-3-2), 40 (204-2-3) were found to be better performers and diverse on the basis of principal factor scores with regard to grain yield and yield contributing characters. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 66 genotypes into six clusters, cluster 1 included maximum number of 21 genotypes and clusters 3 and 6 had the lowest number of 6 genotypes. The results on hierarchical cluster analysis almost mimicked the PCA. The grouping pattern of genotypes obtained by cluster analysis and PCA plots was almost similar. A wide range of diversity for most of the traits observed would enable to pick lines with suitable traits to be used in a breeding programme. Genetic diversity was not essentially associated with geographic diversity.

Key words: Pearl millet, germplasm lines, growth rate, quality-starch, protein, cluster, principal factor, 3-dimensional plot

201-208