Volume Archives: Vol. 42 No 1 (June 2016)

CHANGES IN SOME PARAMETERS IN MIXTURES OF SAINFOIN WITH
SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER

VILIANA VASILEVA* AND ANNA ILIEVA
Institute of Forage Crops,
89 “General Vladimir Vazov” Str., Pleven 5800, Bulgaria
*(e-mail : viliana.vasileva@gmail.com)
(Received : 16 June 2016; Accepted : 26 June 2016)

SUMMARY

Changes in some morphological and physiological parameters (leafs/stems ratio, total plastid pigments content, amount of fixed nitrogen) of sainfoin (Onobrychis Adans.) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum ssp.), pure grown and in mixtures in ratio 50 : 50 per cent were studied in filed experiment in the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven (2011-2015). Local population of sainfoin and three subspecies of subterranean clover, i. e. Trifolium subterraneum ssp. brachycalicinum (cv. Antas), Trifolium subterraneum ssp. yaninicum (cv. Trikkala) and Trifolium subterraneum ssp. subterraneum (cv. Denmark) were used. Leafs/stems ratio of sainfoin in pure stands was 0.35 and it was found be enhanced in mixtures with Trifolium subterraneum ssp. brachycalicinum (0.39) by 12.8 per cent, and with Trifolium subterraneum ssp. yaninicum (0.38) by 9.5 per cent. Total plastid pigments in mixtures increased by 8.3 per cent for Trifolium subterraneum ssp. yaninicum ssp. brachycalicinum and Trifolium subterraneum ssp. yaninicum, and by 9.8 per cent for Trifolium subterraneum ssp. subterraneum, and decreased in sainfoin by 17.2 per cent for mixture with Trifolium subterraneum ssp. yaninicum. There were from 2.20 kg N/da (sainfoin+Trifolium subterraneum ssp. subterraneum) to 2.88 kg N/da (sainfoin+Trifolium subterraneum ssp. brachycalicinum) more fixed nitrogen in comparison to the amount fixed from pure grown sainfoin. Sainfoin and subterranean clover in mixtures showed good mutual tolerance, morphological and physiological status.

Key words: leafs/stems ratio, plastid pigments, sainfoin, subterranean clover, mixtures

1-8

MANIFESTATION OF HETEROSIS AND HETEROBELTIOSIS FOR YIELD
ATTRIBUTING TRAITS IN INBRED LINES OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)

B. V. VARAPRASAD AND D. SHIVANI
Agricultural Research Station, Madhira
Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University,
*(e-mail : rishith_sree@rediffmail.com)
(Received : 21 April 2016; Accepted : 31 May 2016)

SUMMARY

The experiment was carried out during rabi 2012-13 involving 15 inbred lines in combination with
four testers in line x tester design to obtain 60 cross combinations for evaluation along with three checks for heterosis in terms of yield and its attributes. The results indicated significant negative relative heterosis for days to 50 per cent tasseling in 26 hybrids indicating earliness for maturity. Relative heterosis for plant height varied from 10.99 to 102.98 per cent, heterobeltiosis from -1.45 to 61.89 and standard heterosis from -35.44 to 7.75 per cent, -28.55 to 19.26 per cent and -26.88 to 22.04 per cent over DHM 117, 30 V 92 and 900 M Gold, respectively. Relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis for ear height and ear length were found to be positively significant in most of the crosses. For 100-seed weight, majority of the hybrids showed significant and positive relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis with range of relative heterosis from 21.74 to 31.97 per cent and heterobeltiosis from -38.18 to 27.63 per cent and standard heterosis from -17.07 to 21.95 per cent
over DHM-117, from -17.07 to 21.95 per cent over 30 V 92 and -8.11 to 35.14 over 900 M Gold, respectively. Significant positive relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant were also recorded by many hybrids indicating simultaneous manifestation of heterosis for yield component traits.

Key words: Maize, yield, yield attributes, heterosis

9-18

ASSESSMENT OF RELATIVE VARIABILITY AND ITS DISTRIBUTION
PATTERN IN SOME AVENA SPECIES

JAYEETA CHAKRABORTY, R. N. ARORA, A. K. CHHABRA AND D. R. ANEJA
Oriental Bank of Commerce, Pataudi,
Gurgaon (Haryana), India
(Received : 03 June 2016; Accepted : 27 June 2016)

SUMMARY

Twenty-four genotypes comprising 16 Avena spp. were studied for assessing variability and its distribution pattern for 12 morphological characters at Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India during rabi 2010-11. Duncan multiple range test reflected relative genotypic variability for each trait among 24 genotypes and distribution pattern for variability suggested six distinct groups for green fodder yield, three groups for seed yield/plant and flag leaf width; two groups each for number of leaves on main culm, tillers per plant, axis node, 100-seed weight, leaf width and height at fodder stage, five distinct groups each for dry fodder yield and spikelets/panicle. Genotype HJ 8 was found to have significant differences between all pairs of genotypes for the characters like axis node, spikelets/panicle, green fodder yield and leaf width. Similarly, genotype NGB 4462 was found to have significant differences between all pairs of genotypes for the particular characters flag leaf width and dry fodder yield.

Key words: Avena spp., morphological characters, variability, distribution pattern, Duncan multiple range test

19-23

CHARACTER ASSOCIATION STUDIES IN OATS (AVENA SATIVA L.) FOR
GREEN FODDER AND GRAIN YIELD

JAIPAL AND S. S. SHEKHAWAT*
AICRP on Forage Crops & Utilization
Centre for Forage Management
Agricultural Research Station,
S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University,
Bikaner-334 006 (Rajasthan), India
*(e-mail : surendrashekhawat884@gmail.com)
(Received : 21 April 2016; Accepted : 25 June 2016)

SUMMARY

Correlation and path analysis for grain and fodder production in oats (Avena sativa L.) were studied
for 30 genotypes of oats. Correlation of grain yield was positive and significant at phenotypic and genotypic levels with characters viz., plant height, tillers per metre row length, dry matter yield (q/ha), seed index, straw yield (q/ha) and green fodder yield (q/ha). Path analysis revealed that direct effect of seed index, dry matter yield (q/ha) and plant height were of high magnitude. The high positive association of other characters with grain yield per plant (g) was also due to high indirect effect through these characters. This indicated that grain yield was mainly a product of direct and indirect effects of seed index, dry matter yield (q/ha) and plant height. The high positive association of other characters with green fodder yield (q/ha) was also due to high indirect effect through dry matter yield (q/ha) and plant height. This indicated that green fodder yield was mainly a product of direct and indirect effects of dry matter yield (q/ha) and plant height.

Key words: Correlation, path analysis, oats

24-29

CHROMIUM TOXICITY AFFECTS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN
SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.)

SWEETY SIHAG*, NEHA WADHWA AND U. N. JOSHI
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : sweetypoonia2011@gmail.com)
(Received : 10 June 2016; Accepted : 27 June 2016)

SUMMARY

A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying Cr (VI) levels [0.0-4.0 mg Cr (VI)/kg soil in the form of potassium dichromate] on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and their metabolites in sorghum. The present investigation showed that the enzyme activity of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and their metabolites in leaves and stem of the plant at different growth stages i. e. 35, 70 and 90 days after sowing (DAS) were adversely affected with an increase in Cr (VI) levels from 0.0 to 4.0 mg Cr (VI)/kg soil. A significant decrease in the peroxidase activity and increase in ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed with increase in chromium concentration in the soil. The increase in activity of peroxidase consumed hydrogen peroxide and thus it resulted in decrease of hydrogen peroxide content, while due to decrease in activity of ascorbate peroxidase, ascorbate content get increased by Cr (VI) application.

Key words:Antioxidant enzymes, chromium, metal toxicity, Sorghum bicolor

30-35

EFFECT OF PRIMARY BIOMETHANATED SPENTWASH ON CHEMICAL
PROPERTIES AND YIELD OF FODDER MAIZE

SANTOSH PATIL*, A. D. DURDUDE AND SUNIL JAWALE
BAIF Development Research Foundation
Uruli Kanchan, Pune-412 202 (Maharashtra), India
*(e-mail : santosh86patil@gmail.com)
(Received : 08 October 2015; Accepted : 01 April 2016)

SUMMARY

The experiment on effect of primary biomethanated spentwash on physico-chemical properties of sodic vertisols and yield of fodder maize was carried at Post Graduate Farm, MPKV, Rahuri during 2011-12. The effect of varying doses of primary biomethanated spentwash (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 m3/ha) and combination of FYM+RDF, FYM+50% GR and FYM+RDF+100 per cent GR+RDF on soil properties, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of fodder maize was studied. The experimental soil was Vertic Haplustepts with alkaline (pH 8.90), calcareous (CaCO3 10.50%), clay in texture, high in exchangeable sodium (10.60 cmol (p+)/kg) and ESP (25.20) with low in available nitrogen and phosphorus and high in available potassium. The available N, P and K after harvest of fodder maize crop were significantly higher in PBSW treatment applied @ 500 m3/ha, however, uptake and yield of fodder maize were significantly higher in 400 and 500 m3/ha treatments (495.30 and 517.31 q/ha green yield, respectively) followed by FYM+RDF+ 50 per cent GR and FYM+RDF+100 per cent GR.

Key words:Post biomethanated spent wash, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity

36-39

RESPONSE OF BERSEEM (TRIFOLIUM ALEXANDRINUM L.) GENOTYPES
TO DIFFERENT PHOSPHORUS LEVELS

A. S. GODARA, SATPAL*, U. N. JOSHI AND YOGESH JINDAL
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : satpal.fpj@gmail.com)
(Received : 30 May 2016; Accepted : 16 June 2016)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana) during winter season (rabi) of 2014-15 to study the response of different phosphorus levels on the yield and quality of berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) genotypes. Seven berseem genotypes viz., JBSC 1, JBSC 2, JBSC 3, JBSC 4, Bundel berseem 2, Wardan and Mescavi were sown with 60, 80 and 100 kg P2O5/ha. Among genotypes, JBSC 4 recorded highest number of shoots/m2 (656.78), green fodder (425.89 q/ha) and dry matter yield (38.54 q/ha). JBSC 4 was also found superior in terms of crude protein content (18.75%) and crude protein yield (7.23 q/ha). Among different phosphorus levels, highest green fodder (380.86 q/ha) and dry matter yield (34.26 q/ha) were recorded with the application of 100 kg P2O5/ha which were on a par with 80 kg P2O5/ha but significantly superior over 60 kg P2O5/ha. Maximum crude protein content (18.38%) was estimated with the application of 80 kg P2O5/ha. However, its yield revealed increasing trend with increased levels of phosphorus, maximum with 100 kg P2O5/ha. Among genotypes, the maximum gross returns (Rs. 53,236/ha), net returns (Rs. 28,376/ha) and B : C ratio (1.14) were fetched with JBSC 4 closely followed by JBSC 2. Among different phosphorus levels, the maximum gross returns (Rs. 47,608/ha), net return (Rs. 21,786/ha) and B : C ratio (0.84) were fetched with the application of 100 kg P2O5/ha closely followed by 80 kg P2O5/ha.

Key words:Dry matter, green fodder yield, phosphorus, berseem, crude protein

40-43

EVALUATION OF BIOAGENTS FOR MANAGEMENT OF DOWNY MILDEW OF PEARL MILLET CAUSED BY SCLEROSPORA GRAMINICOLA (SACC.) SCHROET
POOJA SANGWAN AND KUSHAL RAJ
Department of Plant Pathology
CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
(e-mail : choudhary.shweta737@gmail.com)
(Received : 05 June 2016; Accepted : 27 June 2016)

SUMMARY

Downy mildew of pearl millet incited by Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet is the most widespread and destructive disease of pearl millet in India and other pearl millet growing area of the world. This disease is a major factor limiting full exploitation of high yield potential hybrids in India. The field trials were conducted in Department of Plant Pathology research area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar with the objective to evaluate different biological agents for the management of pearl millet downy mildew in an attempt to develop an ecofriendly management strategy. Pearl millet seeds of moderately susceptible hybrid B 2301 were treated with Bacillus pumulis, Chitosan, Chitosan + Bacillus pumulis, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens were sown under sick plot and observations on germination percentage, per cent disease incidence at 30 and 60 days after sowing and yield data on harvest were recorded. Among different agents tested to manage downy mildew, minimum disease incidence (9.3%) was observed in treatment of Chitosan + Bacillus pumulis with maximum germination percentage of 53.5% and grain yield (1091.7 kg/ha).

Key words:Pearl millet, downy mildew, bioagents, Trichoderma, Chitosan, Bacillus pumulis

44-47

HETEROSIS STUDIES FOR YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTING TRAITS IN
FORAGE MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)

J. I. NANAVATI*
Main Forage Research Station
Anand Agricultural University,
Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India
*(e-mail : nanavatijayesh15@gmail.com)
(Received : 08 June 2016; Accepted : 25 June 2016)

SUMMARY

The utility of heterosis per se may not be of much use, but cross combinations showing excellent hybrid vigour can be used in developing high yielding forage hybrids in maize crop. The present investigation was conducted at Main Forage Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand during rabi, 2012 season. The experimental material consisted of 45 F1 and their 14 parents. Material was sown in randomized complete block design with three replications. The hybrids were evaluated to know the extent of heterosis over better parent. For green forage yield per plant, maximum heterobeltiosis observed in the hybrid African Tall x GWC-0319 (104.87 per cent). This hybrid can be identified as potential hybrid for wide spread cultivation and commercial exploitation after necessary testing. This cross can also be advanced for isolation of superior genotypes and selected genotypes may intermated to map up fixable genetic variance.

Key words:Forage Maize, Heterosis, Heterobeltiosis, Hybrid, Parents

48-50

GENETIC VARIABILITY AND DIVERGENCE STUDIES IN OATS (AVENA SATIVA L.) FOR GREEN FODDER AND GRAIN YIELD
JAIPAL AND S. S. SHEKHAWAT*
AICRP on Forage Crops & Utilization
Centre for Forage Management,
Agricultural Research Station,
S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University,
Bikaner-334 006 (Rajasthan), India
*(e-mail : surendrashekhawat884@gmail.com)
(Received : 21 April 2016; Accepted : 25 June 2016)

SUMMARY

Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and genetic divergence for grain and fodder production in oats (Avena sativa L.) were studied for 30 genotypes of oats. Analysis of variance indicated that sufficient amount of genetic variability was present among the genotypes for all characters. High heritability along with high genetic advance was observed for tillers per metre row length and green fodder yield (q/ha). On the basis of multivariate analysis based on Mahalanobis D2 statistic, 30 genotypes were grouped only into four clusters. Cluster I was the largest and consisted of 23 genotypes followed by II with five genotypes. Rest of the clusters III and IV had single genotype in each cluster. Inter cluster-distance was the highest between clusters II and IV and minimum inter-cluster distance was present between cluster I and cluster III. The clusters II and IV having maximum inter-cluster distance showed that their members were far apart from each other, while members of clusters I and III having minimum inter-cluster distance were quite close. The superior genotypes identified for dual purpose aspect were NDO-711, UPO-10-2, KENT and RO-19, which gave good green fodder yield and grain yield.

Key words : Genetic variability and divergence, oats

51-55

EFFECTS OF CHANGING ENVIRONMENT ON WHEAT DRY MATTER YIELD
PREETI, I. S. PANWAR* AND R. K. ARYA
Wheat and Barley Section,
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding,
CCS HAU, Hisar -125004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : isp.panwar@gmail.com)
(Received : 24 May 2016; Accepted: 27 June 2016)

SUMMARY

A set of 42 genotypes of bread was grown in four different environments at the experimental area of Wheat and Barley Section, Department of Genetics and Plant breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi season 2012-13, to identify of stable genotypes. The considerable genetic differences among genotypes for various traits were evident in all the four environments. From the mean performance of the genotypes for different quantitative traits based on all the four environments, it appeared that genotypes, HD 2967, DBW 17, WH 542, PBW 343, WH 711, DPW 621-50 and C-306 were promising for dry matter yield. Analysis of variance for phenotypic stability indicated that both linear and non-linear components contributed to total G×E interaction for all the characters. However a major portion of G×E was accounted by non-linear component for dry fodder yield per plant. The linear portion was higher for days to maturity. However, the genotypes WH 1098, WH 1126, PBW 343, WH 1081, WH 542 and HD 2851 were found stable for dry matter yield in all the environments because they had above average mean, âi value equal to zero and non-significant S2di value. It means that these were less responsive to the environmental changes and therefore, more adaptive.

Key words:Combining ability, heritability, genetic advance, breeding programmes

56-61

EVALUATION OF CLUSTER BEAN GENOTYPES IN SUMMER FOR YIELD AND ITS CONTRIBUTING TRAITS UNDER HARYANA CONDITIONS
Forage Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125004, India
*(e-mail : r.panchta@gmail.com)
(Received : 30 May 2016; Accepted : 25 June 2016)

SUMMARY

The material for the present study comprised ten cluster bean genotypes. The present experiment was conducted at Research Area, Forage Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCSHAU, Hisar during summer 2015 in randomized block design with four replications. The results of present study revealed that genotype HG 2-20 (618 kg/ha) out yielded significantly in grain yield followed by RGC 1066 (526 kg/ha), GAUG 825 (525 kg/ha), RGC 1017 (420 kg/ha) and RGS 05 (401 kg/ha). Therefore, HG 2-20 may be recommended for commercial cultivation under Haryana conditions during summer.

Key words: Summer Guar, Yield performance, Photo insensitive, Thermo insensitive

62-64