Volume Archives: Vol. 42 No 2 (September 2016)

HEAT TOLERANCE IN PEARL MILLET : A REVIEW
A. K. Yadav, R. K. Arya, M. K. Singh, Dharmender Kumar and Ravish Panchta
Floriculture Division,
Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR),
Palampur-176 061 (H. P.), India
*(e-mail : rajesharya@hau.ernet.in)
(Received : 14 May 2016; Accepted : 22 June 2016)

SUMMARY

Global warming may cause serious problem in agricultural production, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. As the heat stress affects the seed germination, plant growth and development, resulting in drastic reduction in yield. Pearl millet is a multipurpose crop grown in these areas due to its tolerance to high temperature/drought. But, further improvement for thermo tolerance is of instant need, for economization of agriculture in these areas. Therefore, to develop/identify heat tolerant genotypes, knowledge of screening methods, heat tolerance mechanisms along with breeding techniques are important. Heat stress decreases the rate of germination and may also inhibit the germination depending on heat tolerance of the genotype. A lot of genetic variability is available for heat tolerance in pearl millet. The different screening techniques, viz. STI, SSTI, MTS, etc. may be utilized for screening the germplasm for heat tolerance. Breeding for heat tolerance information of genetic variability, gene action (additive and non-additive), heritability, stability and correlation in relation to heat tolerance is available. Gene interaction on heat tolerance showed its complex nature of inherence. To overcome the heat stress various mechanisms such as maintenance of membrane stability, scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), production of anti-oxidants, osmo-regulation of solutes and synthesis of heat stroke proteins (HSPs) were used. Both conventional as well as molecular breeding techniques were utilized for genetic improvement for heat tolerance.

Key words: Heat tolerance, screening techniques, genetic improvement, pearl millet

65-81

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN ON GROWTH, FODDER YIELD AND SILAGE OF MAIZE AND JUMBO FODDER WITH COWPEA AS INTER CROPPING
M. J. KHATUN, M. R. ISLAM, M. K. I. KHAN, AND M. EBRAHIMI
Department of Animal Science,
Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM,
Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*(e-mail : kik1775@yahoo.co.uk)
(Received : 18 September 2016; Accepted : 29 September 2016)

SUMMARY

Two field experiments were conducted to know the effect of different doses of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth, botanical parameters and yield of maize and jumbo fodder cultivated with cowpea as inter crop and evaluation of silage. The experimental plots for Jumbo with cowpea and maize with cowpea were applied to nitrogen (N2) levels as urea 0, 100, 150kg ha-1 and 0, 150, 220 kg/ha, respectively. Significant differences were observed between treatments and control after applying N2 fertilizer. In 75days, maximum plant length 146.85cm, stem length 126.99cm, dry matter (DM) yield 16.78t/ha, fresh yield 20.10t/ha, crude protein (CP)13%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) 59.50%, ash 12.5% and sundry matter (SDM) 88.5% were observed of Maize after applying 220kg urea/ha. In 75days, higher values of these parameters were obtained for jumbo after applying150kg urea/ha. Higher DM and CP content were found with Cowpea silage (95.18% vs 92.78% and 14.78% vs 6.35%) compared to Maize with Cowpea silage. To meet up the shortage of fodder for livestock priority should be given to cultivate of Maize with Cowpea and the recommended doses of nitrogen was 220 kg urea/ha for maize and 150 kg urea/ha for jumbo.

Key words: Fodder, nitrogen fertilizer, silage quality, yield

82-89

PRINCIPAL COMPONENT AND CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH)
S. K. JAIN* AND P. R. PATEL
Sorghum Research Station
Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Deesa,
Banaskanta, Gujarat – 385 535 India
*(e-mail: skjain@sdau.edu.in)
(Received : 06 September 2016; Accepted : 27 September 2016)

SUMMARY

In the current set of an experiment, thirty two sorghum genotypes were assessed for different yield and yield component traits. For evaluation of these traits, basic statistics, correlation, Principal component (PC) and diversity analyses were employed to obtain suitable parents that can be further exploited in future breeding programmes. The estimation of descriptive statistics of nine quantitative traits indicated the existence of variability among the genotypes. Correlation analysis revealed that grain yield was positively correlated with panicle length, leaf length and leaf width whereas fodder yield was positively correlated with number of leaves/plant, leaf width, leaf length, plant height and days to maturity. The positive correlation among these yield contributing traits suggested that these characters are important for direct selection of high yielding genotypes. Principal component (PC) analysis showed first 3 PCs having Eigen value >1 explaining 70.89% of the total variation with different yield and yield component traits. In the biplot analysis between PCs 1 and 2, the genotypes remained scattered in all four quadrants, showing large genetic variability in quantitative traits. The thirty two genotypes were grouped into five clusters on the basis of average linkage and dendogram. The cluster-I having 13 genotypes followed by cluster-III (9), cluster-II (7), cluster-V (2) and cluster-IV (1). Distribution pattern of all the genotypes into five clusters showed the presence of considerable genetics diversity among the genotypes for most of the traits under consideration. Various useful correlations and aforementioned information extracted from cluster and PC analysis will be helpful in designing breeding programmes to obtain high yielding genotypes in sorghum for seed as well as fodder yield.

Key words: Correlation, Genotypes, Principal component analysis, Diversity analysis, Clusters

90-95

GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN OAT (AVENA SATIVA L.)
PARBHAT KUMAR, D. S. PHOGAT AND AXAY BHUKER*
Forage Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : bhuker.axay@gmail.com)
(Received : 10 August 2016; Accepted : 15 September 2016)

SUMMARY

Genetic diversity among 50 genotypes was carried out using Mahalanobis D2 statistics for 16 characters. Based on the D2 values, all genotypes were grouped into seven clusters depending upon the similarity in the expression of their genetic divergence. Maximum number of genotypes were grouped in cluster VI (12) followed by cluster IV (11), I (9), II (8), III (4) and clusters V and VII had three genotypes each. The highest intra cluster D2 value was observed for cluster V (5.304) followed by cluster I (5.174), cluster III (5.054), cluster VI (4.771), cluster II (4.470), cluster VII (4.501) and cluster IV (4.104).The average inter cluster distance was found to be highest between cluster V and VII (8.558), cluster III and V (7.165), cluster III and VI (5.919) whereas the lower inter-cluster distance was observed between clusters II and IV (5.075), followed by clusters IV and VI (5.328). Out of 16 characters, contribution of seedling dry weight was maximum (39.76%), followed by seed yield/plant (13.71%), seed vigour index II (10.94%), axis length (8.41%) and germination% (7.43%), whereas the remaining characters like 100-seed weight (4.33%), seed vigour index I (2.78%), seedling length (2.61%), days to maturity (2.37%), days to 50% flowering (2.29%), number of tillers/plant (1.80%), flag leaf length (1.47%), inetrnode length (1.22%), number of spikelets/panicle (0.16%), peduncle length (0.65%) and plant height (0.08%) contributed very little for divergence.

Key words: Genetic divergence, oat, yield traits, genotypes

96-100

GROWTH AND YIELD OF COOL SEASON FORAGE CROPS UNDER TARAI REAGION OF UTTARAKHAND
BRAJKISHOR PRAJAPATI*, AMIT BHATNAGAR AND KEWALANAND
Department of Agronomy
College of Agriculture, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar-263145, India
*(e-mail : brajkishorprajapati1@gmail.com)
(Received : 23 August 2016; Accepted : 27 September 2016)

SUMMARY

Field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2012-2013 at Instructional Dairy Farm, G.B.P.U.A&T., Pantnagar (India) to evaluate performance of cool season forage crops/ varieties. The treatments consisted of seven crop varieties i.e. some imported varieties of these crops like Genie oat (Oat) and Baralfa IN (lucerne), Makkhan grass (rye grass) and Barduro (red clover) from Netherland have been tested in the present investigation with Mescavi variety of Berseem, UPO-212 variety of oat and local rye grass. The results showed that among oat varieties, crude protein per cent and dry matter digestibility was higher in genie oat than UPO-212. Crude protein per cent and dry matter digestibility was higher in makkan grass compared with local rye. Highest green forage yield, dry matter yield, crude protein yield and digestible dry matter yield was obtained from Baralfa IN (lucerne) and least from Barduro (red clover) than remaining leguminous crops. Among oat varieties, green forage yield, dry matter yield, crude protein yield and digestible dry matter yield was higher in the UPO-212 than genie oat while among rye grasses, these yields was higher in the makkhan grass than local rye.

Key words: Berseem, crude protein content, green forage yield

101-108

EFFECT OF DUAL PURPOSE VARIETIES, CUTTING SCHEDULES AND FERTILITY LEVELS ON NUTRIENT CONTENT, UPTAKE, QUALITY AND YIELD OF BARLEY (HORDIUM VULGARE L.)
NIRMALA K. MEENA, J. CHOUDHARY* AND HANSRAM MALI
Department of Agronomy
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology,
Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India
*(e-mail : jaggiudr@gmail.com)
(Received : 5 July 2016; Accepted : 25 September 2016)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur (Rajasthan) during the rabi season of 2013-14. The experiment consisted combinations of two dual purpose barley varieties (RD 2715 and RD 2552), three cutting schedules (40, 50 and 60 DAS) and three fertility levels (RDF : 60 kg N+20 kg P2O5/ha, RDF+25% extra ¬N and RDF+50% extra N). These 18 treatment combinations were evaluated under factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed that variety RD 2552 recorded significantly higher N, P, K content and uptake by green fodder, grain and straw as compared to RD 2715. The significant improvement in total digestible nutrient (63.58%) and protein content (2.70%) of green fodder, grain (9.27%) and straw (1.66%) of variety RD 2552 over RD 2715 but mineral ash, crude fiber and green fodder yield were highest in RD 2715 as compared to RD 2552. Variety RD 2552 recorded significantly higher grain, straw and biological yield over RD 2715. Cutting of green fodder done at 60 DAS recorded highest N, P , K and protein content in green fodder, grain and straw compared to 40 and 50 DAS. The grain, straw and biological yield as well as nutrient uptake by grain and straw were significantly increased when green fodder was cut at 40 DAS, while cutting at 60 DAS recorded the highest nutrient uptake by green fodder. The mineral ash and crude fiber in green fodder were higher when green fodder was cut at 60 DAS as compared to earlier cutting. The maximum N, P, K content and uptake in grain and straw were estimated under application of RDF+50 per cent extra ¬N. While, N uptake by green fodder recorded higher under application of RDF+25 per cent extra ¬N but it was at par with RDF+50 per cent extra N. The highest protein content in green fodder, grain and straw was recorded under RDF+50 per cent extra N, the same trend was observed in regards of TDN and mineral ash content in green fodder. Effect of 50 per cent extra nitrogen application on yield attributes was also reflected on yield and ultimately produced the highest green fodder (29.78 t/ha), grain (3.56 t/ha), straw (6.86 t/ha) and biological yield (10.42 t/ha).

Key words: Barley, cutting schedules, N, P and K content, uptake, protein content, TDN, mineral ash, crude fiber, yield, RDF

109-114

RESPONSE OF FORAGE PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM GLAUCUM L.) GENOTYPES TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS
R. S. SHEORAN, SATPAL*, U. N. JOSHI, B. S. DUHAN AND S. ARYA
Forage Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : satpal.fpj@gmail.com)
(Received : 30 June 2016; Accepted : 08 September 2016)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana) during rainy season (kharif) of 2015 to study the effect of different nitrogen levels on the yield and quality of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) genotypes. Four pearl millet genotypes viz., Raj Bajra Chari-2, AVKB-19, DFMH-30 and Giant Bajra were tested for their response at 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N/ha. Among genotypes, Giant Bajra (Check) proved significantly superior than remaining genotypes for green fodder as well as dry matter yield. Genotype AVKB-19 recorded highest crude protein content (10.2%) followed by DFMH-30 (10.1%). The increasing levels of nitrogen from 0 to 90 kg/ha significantly increased the green fodder and dry matter yield over their lower levels. Application of 90 kg N/ha brought out an increase of 44.3, 29.7 and 7.0 per cent in green fodder and 54.0, 18.2 and 3.7 per cent in dry matter over 0, 30 and 60 kg N/ha, respectively. Among genotypes, maximum gross returns (Rs. 41986/ha), net returns (Rs. 27407/ha) and B : C ratio (2.88) were fetched in Giant Bajra closely followed by DFMH-30. Among different nitrogen levels, maximum gross returns (Rs. 36253/ha), net returns (Rs. 21,135/ha) and B : C ratio (2.40) were fetched with the application of 90 kg N/ha.

Key words: Green fodder yield, dry matter, nitrogen, pearl millet, crude protein

115-118

SGROWTH INDICES AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF FODDER MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) AS INFLUENCED BY INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT
SACHIN KUMAR, ANIL KUMAR*, JAGDEV SINGH AND PARVEEN KUMAR
Bajra Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : anilbajra2009@gmail.com)
(Received : 19 July 2016; Accepted : 13 September 2016)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted at Research Farm Area of Forage Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during kharif 2010. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with ten treatments viz., Control, seed treatment with Azotobacter, 100 per cent N through FYM, 100 per cent RDF, 75 per cent RDF+Azotobacter, 75 per cent RDF+25 per cent N through FYM, 75 per cent RDF+25 per cent N through FYM+Azotobacter, 50 per cent RDF+Azotobacter, 50 per cent RDF+50 per cent N through FYM and 50 per cent RDF+50 per cent N through FYM+Azotobacter. The growth indices Leaf Area Index and crop growth rate were observed significantly higher with 100 per cent RDF followed by 75 per cent RDF+25 per cent N through FYM+Azotobacter. Availability of N, P and K in the soil under most of the treatments decreased after the crop harvest than before the sowing of the crop. The highest NPK status in the soil after the harvest of crop was recorded in the treatment 100 per cent N through FYM.

Key words: Maize, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), Azotobacter, NPK uptake

119-123

STRUCTURAL AND NON-STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATES IN RELATION TO BACTERIAL BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN FORAGE
GUAR (CYAMOPSIS SP.)

SUMAN LATA, UDAI NARAYAN JOSHI AND NEHA WADHWA*
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : nehawadhwa.wadhwa@gmail.com)
(Received : 06 July 2016; Accepted : 23 September 2016)

SUMMARY

The present investigation was conducted to study the changes in structural and non-structural carbohydrate contents and their role in bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. cyamopsidis) resistance in forage guar. Guar crop (cvs. HG 563, FS 277, PNB and C. serrata) was raised in pots filled with 5 kg of sieved sandy soil in a naturally lit net house. Two sets of 15 pots of each genotype were maintained. One set was kept as control and another set was inoculated with X. axonopodis bacterial suspension at 30-35 days after sowing (DAS) and humidity was maintained before and after inoculation. Lesion size was observed to be in direct correlation with the disease susceptibility. Non-structural carbohydrate content decreased in inoculated leaves as compared to uninoculated one, while structural carbohydrates (NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and silica) increased in inoculated leaves. This study enables to determine the relative disease resistance in relation to changes in carbohydrate content along with the role of carbohydrates in bacterial blight resistance in forage guar.

Key words: Bacterial blight, carbohydrate, guar, Xanthomonas

124-130

LONG-TERM EFFECT OF FYM AND NITROGEN ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF K FRACTION IN SOIL UNDER PEARL MILLET-WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEM
ROHTAS KUMAR AND R. P. NARWAL
Department of Soil Science
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : rkmsoil@gmail.com)
(Received : 11 August 2016; Accepted : 26 September 2016)

SUMMARY

The present study evaluated the effect of farmyard manure and fertilizer-N doses on distribution of different K fractions in a long-term field experiment. The long-term field experiment was conducted since 1967 in Department of Soil Science on a coarse loamy, Typic Ustochrept soil using a pearl millet-wheat cropping sequence. Total-K content of soil increased with the application of FYM. Water soluble-K, exchangeable-K, non exchangeable-K and lattice-K were ranged from 35-77 mg/kg, 155-1117 mg/kg, 2215-4346 mg/kg and 11076-15407 mg/kg, respectively in surface soil. The water soluble-K, exchangeable-K, non exchangeable-K and lattice-K were higher in surface soil. Farmyard manure applied in rabi season had more effects as compared to kharif season. Application of fertilizer-N had deleterious effect on all K fractions. The percent contribution of different K fractions towards total K in surface and sub-surface soil followed the order: water soluble-K < exchangeable-K < non exchangeable-K < Lattice-K.

Key words: Fertilizer-N, FYM, long-term, pearl millet, potassium fractions and wheat

131-134

STUDIES ON POPULATION VARIATION OF MELOIDOGYNE GRAMINICOLA USING SOME WEEDS, FORAGE AND VEGETABLE CROPS
POOJA DEVI, R. S. KANWAR* AND ANIL KUMAR
Department of Nematology
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : kanwarrambir@gmail.com)
(Received : 10 August 2016; Accepted : 15 September 2016)

SUMMARY

On the basis of host reactions, variations in populations of Meloidogyne graminicola from Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Haryana and Punjab were studied. Experiment was conducted under screen house conditions, in half kg earthen pots, using autoclaved soil. Five hundred fresh eggs and second stage juveniles of each population were inoculated on 10-day-old plants. Forty-five days after inoculation, data were recorded on number of galls seedling, life cycle stages inside the galls, number of eggs per root system and soil population from each pot. All the plants, (pearl millet, sorghum, barnyard grass, chotti savank, badi savank, brinjal and rice), except tomato, were found susceptible to all the five populations of M. graminicola, although variation occurred in respect of number of galls as well as root and soil population. Developmental stages of nematode were also recorded in the roots of all the plants, except tomato. Thus, all the populations showed similar reactions on the tested plant species.

Key words: Rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, population variation, host range, weeds, sorghum, pearl millet

135-139

PERFORMANCE OF SINGLE-CUT FORAGE SORGHUM GENOTYPES TO FERTILITY LEVELS CHOUDHARY
KENDRA PAL SINGH, P. C. CHAPLOT, H. K. SUMERIYA AND GOPAL LAL CHOUDHARY
Department of Agronomy
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology,
Udaipur-313 001 (Rajasthan), India
*(e-mail: kptogas@gmail.com ; **pcchaplot@gmail.com)
(Received : 04 August 2016; Accepted : 13 September 2016)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2015 at Udaipur, Rajasthan on clay loam soil to assess the effect of fertility levels [50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF)], 75 per cent RDF, 100 per cent RDF (80 kg N+40 kg P2O5+40 kg K2O/ha) and 125 per cent RDF on single-cut forage sorghum genotypes (SPH 1752, CSH 13, PC 1080, SPV 2185, CSV 20 and CSV 23). Among single-cut forage sorghum genotypes, SPH 1752 proved significantly superior in respect to plant height, stem girth, leaves/plant, leaf : stem ratio and dry matter accumulation. These improvements in growth led the genotype SPH 1752 to produce significantly higher green and dry fodder yield by 9.9, 11.6, 15.2, 31.0, 34.7, and 9.7, 11.5, 13.5, 28.8 and 32.2 per cent over genotypes CSH 13, CSV 23, SPV 2185, PC 1080 and CSV 20, respectively. This genotype also fetched highest net returns of Rs. 57516/ha and B : C ratio of 2.40. The crop fertilized with 125 per cent RDF recorded significantly highest plant height, stem girth, leaves/plant, leaf : stem ratio and dry matter accumulation over application of 100, 75 and 50 per cent RDF. The magnitude of increase in green and dry fodder yield was of the order of 4.6, 11.4, 18.6 and 10.1, 17.8, 29.1 per cent, respectively. Application of 125 per cent RDF also fetched highest net returns (Rs. 50660/ha) and B : C ratio (2.00) as compared to lower fertility levels.

Key words: Single-cut sorghum genotypes, fertility levels, growth characters, fodder yield, economics

140-142