SWATHY A. H.* AND USHA C. THOMAS
AICRP on Forage Crops & Utilization,
College of Agriculture, Vellayani-695 522, Kerala, India
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
(Received : 7 February 2020; Accepted 30 June 2020)
Livestock sector plays an important role in the Indian economy and is a source of subsidiary income for many resource poor families. Livestock rearing of society at rural or urban landscape ensures healthy and nutritious diets and at national and regional levels, it supplies affordable, nutritious and safe animal sourced food to the people. Most of the fodder requirement is met by feeding crop residues and grazing land. Major fodder crops grown in India are sorghum, cowpea, napier-bajra hybrid, pearl millet, maize, oats, berseem, lucerne and rye grass, etc. India’s fodder crop and livestock sectors are interrelated to each other. For economical and sustainable cattle farming, fodder production round the year is highly essential. Feeding of green fodder to dairy animals play an important role in sustainability of dairy farming. However, in present situation the supply of feed to livestock is not able to meet the demand, and it is urgent to increase the availability of feed resources. In Indian conditions, major farming community falls under small (1-3 ha field size) land holding. A small farmer, usually possessing 2-10 numbers of animals allocates small portion (up to 10 per cent) of his cultivated land to fodder cultivation. Accordingly machinery and their size are required in Indian condition to fulfill their needs. Optimum production and utilization of forage crops is labour-intensive, which ultimately increases the cost of cultivation. This demands appropriate mechanization in fodder production and utilization. Machines in cultivation and utilization of fodder includes sowing machines, weeding machines, harvesting machines, chaff cutting machines and post harvest processing machines. Farm mechanization in India is about 40-45 percent which is very low when compared to countries like US, Brazil and China according to International Exhibition and Conference on Agri-Machinery and Equipment, 2015. Mechanization encourages the improvement of efficiency of large scale production and ultimately leads to urbanization and commercialization in agricultural sector.
Key words:Mechanization, seed separator, fodder harvester, bailer, thresher with urea treatment, feed block making machine, feed pelleting machine, hydroponics
NAVEEN KUMAR*, SATPAL, SURESH KUMAR, UMA DEVI, J. M. SUTALIYA AND SHWETA
Forage Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding,
Department of Agronomy, MAP Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding,
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : email@example.com)
(Received : 03 March 2020; Accepted : 29 June 2020)
The scarcity of fodder availability along with increasing demand of livestock products when integrated with ill effect of climate change, further decreasing fodder productivity in response to increasing emissions of green house gaseous. In future, these threats will raise challenges in quality fodder production. To meet out the desired level of livestock production and its annual growth, the deficit in components of fodder, crop residues and feed has to be solved out either by increasing productivity, utilizing untapped feed resources, increasing land area or through the adoption of some innovative strategies. Maize, being one of the most adaptable emerging crops having wider adaptability under varied agro-climatic conditions, has been proved superior in terms of green fodder quality and silage making, as it provides very palatable, highly succulent and nutritionally rich fodder to livestock which is free from anti-metabolites. Despite technological advancement in breeding programmes, fertilizers and irrigation management systems, the climate is a key aspect in quality fodder production. To mitigate the ill effects of changing climate, conventional approaches of crop production needs to be altered and inventive adaption policies required to be in place. Potential adaptations can be achieved by improving irrigation efficiency and altering sowing time or introducing new genotypes with higher thermal accumulation efficiency. Hybrids with resistant traits to various biotic stresses have been identified and evolved. Furthermore, genotypes adaptable to new geographical area with different environment conditions have to be identified and explored to withstand with climate change.
Key words:Maize, quality fodder, nutrition, climatic scenario, adaptation
MENGISTE YIHUNIE AND YIBELETAL AYNALEM
West Gojjam Zone Land Administration and Use Department, Finoteselam, Ethiopia
Woldia University, Department of Animal Production, and Technology, P. O. Box 400, Woldia, Ethiopia
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
(Received : 05 June 2020; Accepted : 30 June 2020)
The study was carried out to characterize the beef cattle production system, to identify the major constraints and opportunities for smallholder cattle fattening practices the current smallholder cattle fattening practices. The study was conducted using questionnaire-based survey by interviewing a total of 120 households heads participates in cattle fattening practices selected by a systematic random sampling method from seven rural kebeles including one kebele from Finoteselam town in weina-dega (Mid-altitude) and two kebeles in sub-kola (low land) agro-ecologies of Jabitehnan district in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Moreover, focus group discussions, field observations techniques have been carried out. Descriptive statics, one way ANOVA and DMRT for comparison of means were carried out using SPSS version 16 soft ware and Chi-square (c2) test was employed to test the association of different qualitative categorical variables. The basal feeds were fresh cut green forage including improved forage and weeds took higher proportion (63.3%), followed by maize stover and stubble grazing (22.4%), pasture grazing (9.7%), and hay (5%). The three types of houses for fattening cattle are separated room in the family house (62%), enclosed barn with simple shade (22.4%) and housed together with humans (15.6%). Sources of fattening cattle were culled oxen due to old age or being unproductive (34.6%), immediate purchase for fattening (55.7%) and both culled oxen and immediate purchase (9.7%). Feed shortage, lack of enough capital and credit, lack of family labor during seasons of peak agricultural activities lack of extension service and capacity building were the major constraints of smallholder cattle fattening in decreasing order of importance. Chi-square (c2) correspondence analysis showed that the availability of feed shortage, lack of extension service, and capacity were not significantly (P>0.05) different between the two agro-ecologies. However, lack of family labor during seasons of peak agricultural activities significantly affect (P<0.05) cattle fattening practices in the sub-kola than in the weina-dega and lack of capital and credit significantly affect (P<0.05) the practice in the weina-dega than in the sub-kola. Average price of cattle before and after fattening were about 2297 and 3670 birr, respectively, which resulted in gross profit of about 1359 birr per fattened cattle that came from price margin and feed margin over 97 days of feeding period.
Key words:Agro-ecology, cattle fattening, feed resources and constraints
ATAR SINGH*, MUKESH KUMAR, AKASH SINGH AND POOJA TIWARI
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology,
Meerut-250110 (U.P.) India
*(e-mail : email@example.com)
(Received : 07 June 2020; Accepted : 25 June 2020)
Aim of present investigation was to assess genotype environment interaction and determine stable oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivar in central Uttar Pradesh under diverse environment for seed yield and its components in 25 genetically diverse genotypes using randomized block design with three replications during winter season of 2016 -17 and 2017-18 at Students Instructional Farm of Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur during rabi 2016-17 to 2017-18. There was considerable variation in seed yield within and across environments. Stability analysis for seed yield was calculated to know the response to genotype × environment interactions. The mean squares due to G×E (linear) were significant depicting genetic differences among genotypes for linear response to varying environments. Mean squares due to pooled deviations were highly significant, reflecting considerable differences among genotypes for non-linear response. The genotypes were found common in majority of characters namely, CSOFSC12-2, CSOFSC11-5, ANDO1, OS344, OS1, SKO105, CSAOFSC14-6, JHO03-91 and JHO851. Considering all the characters and all the models of stability under study none of the test genotypes were found stable for all the traits however, six genotypes namely,CSOFSC12-2, CSOFSC11-5, CSOFSC11-4, ANDO1,JHO03-91 OS344, OS1 SKO105, CSAOFSC14-6,JHO2007-1 and JHO851 were found stable for maximum characters under all dates of sowing in present study. These genotypes would be useful for commercial exploitation or can be exploited as elite gene pool in future breeding programme.
Key words:Oats, genotypes, environment, stability
RAJESH KUMAR ARYA*, VANDANA, G. S. DAHIYA, MINAKSHI JATTAN, J. M. SUTALIYA AND RAVI KUMAR
MAP Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding,
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (India)
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
(Received : 16 March 2020; Accepted : 20 June 2020)
Present study was carried out by using 21 genotypes of chicory (Cichorium intybus) during Rabi 2017-18 and 2018-19 at Research Farm of MAP Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. The results on seed yield (kg/ha) revealed that the year 2018-19 was most favourable for seed yield (214.44 kg/ha) as compared to 2017-18 (188.81 kg/ha). During 2017-18, HCI-3 was highest yielder with seed yield (320.48 kg/ha) followed by HCI-16 (311.49 kg/ha), HCI-4 (284.29 kg/ha), HCI-19 (271.81 kg/ha) and HCI-20 (266.07 kg/ha). During 2018-19, HCI-16 with 318.49 seed yield (kg/ha) was the top performing genotype followed by HCI-3 (312.94 kg/ha), HCI-1 (292.71 kg/ha), HCI-20 (235.16 kg/ha), HCI-5 (231.49 kg/ha) and HCI-14 (227.77 kg/ha). During 2017-18, the moisture stress during early stages of plant development restricted the plant growth and development which ultimately reduced the seed yield. The evaluation of genotypes over the years exhibited that HCI -3 (316.71 kg/ha), HCI-16 (314.99 kg/ha), HCI -4 (253.34 kg/ha), HCI -20 (250.62 kg/ha) and HCI-1 (248.94 kg/ha) were the promising genotypes and needs further testing over time and space before to recommend for commercial cultivation.
Key words:Chicory (Cichorium intybus), elite genotypes, seed yield, component traits
R. C. BAIRWA*, M. L. REAGER, S. P. SINGH AND S. M. KUMAWAT
Agricultural Research Station,
KVK, COA, SK Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner (Rajasthan), India
*(e-mail : email@example.com)
(Received : 02 June 2020; Accepted : 22 June 2020)
Field study was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, SKRAU, Bikaner on sandy soil during rabi season of 2015-16 to 2017-18. Treatments comprises namely T1 – 100 % Seed rate Oats (100 kg/ha), T2 – 100 % Seed rate lucerne (20 kg/ha), T3 – T2 + Oats 10 kg/ha, T4 – T2+ Oats 20 kg/ha, T5 – T2+ Oats 30 kg/ha T6 – T2+40 Oats kg/ha, T7 – T2 + Sarson 0.625 kg/ha, T8 – T2 + Sarson 1.250 kg/ha, T9 – T2+1.880 kg/ha and T10 – T2 + Sarson 2.500 kg/ha in randomized block design with three replications. lucerne + Oat seed mixed treatments (T5) gave higher GFY and DMY as compared to remaining treatments like lucerne + sarson seed mixed treatments and sole lucerne & oat crop. Further data indicated that lucerne + sarson mixed crop treatments recorded higher GFY (except T7), but the variation in GFY was statistically non significant. The highest DMY (129.8 q/ha) was recorded in Lucerne + oat mixed with 30 kg/ha (T5). The highest CP % was noted in sole lucerne (T2) followed by lucerne + sarson mixed at 0.625 kg/ha (T7) and both these treatment found significantly superior over rest treatments. The maximum net return and B:C ratio found in sole oat (T1) was at par in lucerne + oat mixed @ 30 kg/ha (T5) and both treatments showed statistically superiority over rest treatments. However, oat sole crop gave four cuts and lasts fodder production up to mid April while lucerne + oat mixed treatment (T5) gave six cuts and lasts fodder production up to mid June.
Key words:Lucerne, oats, net returns, sarson, yield
BITTU RAM*, S. S. JAKHAR, DIGAMBER AND SATPAL
Department of Seed Science and Technology,
Forage Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding,
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
(Received : 16 April 2020; Accepted : 02 June 2020)
The present investigation was carried out at Department of Seed Science and Technology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana), India to assess the effect of plant oils treatments and storage containers on seed quality and storability in sorghum. The seeds of forage sorghum variety HJ 541 were treated with plant oils and stored in three containers. The two factor experiment comprising of ten different treatments including plant oils were given to seeds (T0 – Untreated, T1 – Castor oil @ 2 ml/kg seed, T2 – Neem oil @ 2 ml/kg seed, T3 – Aonla oil @ 2 ml/kg seed, T4 – Til oil @ 2 ml/kg seed, T5 – Linseed oil @ 2 ml/kg seed, T6 – Karanj oil @ 2 ml/kg seed, T7 – Akhrot oil @ 2 ml/kg seed, T8 – Ajwain oil @ 2ml/kg seed, T9 – Carbendazim @ 2 g/kg seed) and kept in different containers (C1: Cloth bag, C2: Polythene bag and C3: Metal box) under ambient conditions in laboratory in three replicates. All the treatment combinations were evaluated for seed quality parameters viz. germination, shoot length, root length, seedling dry weight and vigour indices (I and II). All the treatments showed better performance as compared to untreated control. The neem oil (2 ml/kg of seed) performed better than others and among containers polythene bag was proved better followed by metal box and cloth bag for storability at ambient condition. Seed quality parameters found decreased with the passage of time in all the containers and treatments with the progress of storage period.
Key words:Forage sorghum, plant oil, carbendazim, container, seed treatment, seed quality and vigour
SARAT SEKHAR BORA*, KARUNA KANTA SHARMA, KARISHMA BORAH, RANJIT KUMAR SAUD AND LEKHIKA BORGOHAIN
KVK, Udalguri, AICRP on Forage Crops & Utilization, Department of Horticulture, Directorate of Extension Education, Department of Soil Science,
Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam-785013, India
*(e-mail : email@example.com)
(Received : 3 June 2020; Accepted : 28 June 2020)
A field experiment was conducted at the Instructional-cum-Research (ICR) farm, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat (Assam) during 2016-17. The PRG-1 variety of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was tested at three seed rates and four nitrogen levels. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design in three replicates. The treatments consisted of three different seed rates in main plot viz., 10, 15 and 20 kg/ha along with four nitrogen levels viz., 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N/ha in sub-plots. Results revealed that seed rates and nitrogen levels significantly effects ryegrass quality parameters. A seed rate of 20 kg/ha was found to be statistically superior in regards to quality parameters in all the three cuts viz. 1st, 2nd and 3rd cut as compared to seed rate of 15 kg and 10 kg/ha. The highest crude protein yield (6.21 q/ha) was obtained with seed rate of 20 kg/ha and was significantly superior to 15 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha. The crude protein content, crude fat content, crude fiber content of the ryegrass were also found to be significantly higher in seed rate of 20 kg/ha. In case of nitrogen levels application of 90 kg N/ha resulted in higher values in almost all the quality parameters. The highest crude protein yield (7.43 q/ha) was also obtained in 90 kg N /ha and was significantly superior to all other lower doses of nitrogen (60 kg and 30 kg N/ha). The crude protein content, crude fat content, crude fiber content of the ryegrass were also found to be significantly higher in nitrogen level of 90 kg N/ha.
Key words:Ryegrass, nitrogen level, seed rate, quality, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat
HARPREET KAUR OBEROI* AND MANINDER KAUR
Department of Pant Breeding and Genetics,
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
(Received : 3 March 2020; Accepted : 30 June 2020)
The efficiency towards nitrogen uptake and its utilization may vary in different sorghum genotypes due to inherited biological nitrification inhibition potential. In this study, four sorghum single cut genotypes (SPH 1890, SPH 1891, CSV 30F and CSV 32F) were grown with three fertility levels (75% RDF, 100% RDF and 125% RDF). The results revealed that higher the fertilization (125% RDF) higher the biomass yield obtained with improved fodder quality parameters. Sorghum genotype CSV 32F had the highest green and dry fodder yield and it also had better digestibility in comparison to other genotypes. The highest nitrogen uptake was recorded in the genotype SPH 1891 which resulted in higher crude protein yield in this genotype but it noticed to have positive correlation with HCN (anti-nutrient) which is not desirable in livestock feed. In conclusion, use of 125% RDF and the genotypes CSV 32F would enhance the fodder yield due to comparatively better nitrogen uptake ability and its significant positive correlation with fodder quality parameters and growth attributes.
Key words:Nitrogen uptake, sorghum, biomass yield, fodder quality
BRAJKISHOR PRAJAPATI,*, SAPANA TIWARI AND KRANTI KUMAR
Scientist, Department of Agronomy, RHSKVK, Balaghat, M. P., India
Assistant Development Officer, Department of Horticulture, Government of Uttarakhand, India
Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar-263145, India
*(e-mail : email@example.com)
(Received : 06 May 2020; Accepted : 02 June 2020)
The experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2016-17 at Fodder Agronomy block of Instructional Dairy Farm (IDF), Nagla of the Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India to evaluate performance of berseem associate with cool season cereal fodder crops for quality fodder production. Randomized block design was used with four replications consisting of 10 treatments as detailed in materials and methods. The results showed that crude protein content in berseem fodder was significantly higher than remaining treatments at all the cuttings. Among intercropping systems, berseem with ryegrass in 2:2 and 1:1 row ratio had highest crude protein content followed by barley+berseem (2:2) compared with remaining treatments and dry matter digestibility of barley+berseem (2:2) mixture was highest at all the cuttings. Among intercropping systems, total green fodder yield (939.0 q/ha) and dry fodder yield (143.1 q/ha) was highest in ryegrass+berseem (1:1) followed by ryegrass+berseem (2:2) fodder mixture than remaining treatments. The total crude protein yield (18.4 q/ha) was significantly higher with ryegrass+berseem (2:2) than remaining treatments except sole berseem and ryegrass+berseem (1:1). Association of berseem with ryegrass improved the quality of fodder and provided higher green fodder, dry fodder, crude protein and digestible dry matter yields under Tarai agro climatic situation of Uttarakhand.
Key words:Barley, berseem, crude protein yield, green fodder yield, ryegrass
R. K. SHIVRAN, NAVAL KISHOR, B. S. KHERAWAT AND R. D. JAT
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bikaner-II
Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner (Rajasthan), India
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
(Received : 02 March 2020; Accepted : 10 April 2020)
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important nutritious cereal in India with growing demand for malt preparation, brewing and food industries. Over years, declining acreage along with distorted production becomes a major concern in spite of increasing yield. Whereas, feed for livestock invited crop acreage in the case of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Around 71% perceived that barley is more suitable for cultivation under changing climate scenario owing to its high adaptability. Traditionally, barley is a poor man’s cereal in India and its cultivation requires low input with better adaptability to different stresses like drought, salinity and alkalinity, and marginal lands. It has a wide range of utility such as cattle feed, human food and industrial raw material for malting and brewing. Under semi-arid conditions, it is also used for dual purpose viz., green fodder and grain/ straw production from the crop re-growth. Seed is one of the crucial inputs for better farming and its availability and access influence largely the adoption of a variety. Farmers in the study region used mostly their own seed, either higher/lower seed rate than the recommended (100 kg/ha) and if purchased, it was from seed dealers as they ensure timely availability. Apart from seed replacement rate, dose and source of purchase, time of sowing is more important for targeting better yield. A majority of the barley growers opted for timely/normal sowing and it was highest in Uttar Pradesh, followed by Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. Interestingly, the association between time of sowing and yield shows that farmers opting for timely sowing harvests more than farmers who are undergoing either late sowing or early sowing. Arid region of Rajasthan is having recurrent drought owing to its harsh and frequent climatic aberrations. Consequently, limit the scope of sustainable crop production and encourage the degradation of natural resources. Therefore, majority of farming community is engaged in subsistence farming due lack of adequate resources and because of poor and instable crop production, socio-economic status of the farmers is very poor. This has necessitated improvement in agricultural production by imposing improved production technologies. Dual purpose barley provides nutrition rich green fodder for the livestock at the time of scarcity and at the same time also provides acceptable quality grain for human consumption. In addition to unfavorable climatic conditions, use of traditional practices is also important factor responsible for low yield. The present study was therefore conducted in Bikaner district of Rajasthan during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to study the impact of improved production technologies on the fodder, seed yield and economics. The data were collected from 52 farmers in 20.8 hectares area. The findings of the study results revealed that improved technology recorded a mean yield of 4100 kg/ha which was 19.65 per cent higher than obtained by farmers practices (3450 kg/ha). The higher net returns (Rs. 56561/ha) and benefit: cost ratio of 2.40 was obtained with improved technologies in comparison to farmer’s practices (Rs. 41288 and 1.77).
Key words:Dual purpose barley, fodder, grain yield, front line demonstration, economics
SHAUKAT ALI* AND BALBIR SINGH
Krishi Vigyan Kendra,
Chandgothi, Churu-331305 (Rajasthan), India
*(e-mail : email@example.com)
(Received : 13 June 2020; Accepted : 30 June 2020)
KVK, Chandgothi, Churu (Rajasthan) conducted total 128 Front Line Demonstrations on barley at farmers field in Churu District of Rajasthan during five consecutive years from 2013-14 to 2017-18 in rabi season. The farming situation was irrigated and soil was sandy loam low in nitrogen, medium in phosphorus and medium to high in potash. Assessment of gap was done and on basis of gap assessment, improved recommended technologies of barley cultivation were demonstrated. On overall average basis, 4593 kg/ha grain yield of barley was recorded under demonstration plot while 3735 kg/ha in farmer’s practices. On the basis of five year average, 22.94 per cent higher grain yield was recorded under demonstrations than the farmer’s practices (Local check). The extension gap, technology gap and technology index were 858 kg/ha, -113 kg/ha and -2.49 per cent, respectively. An additional investments of Rs 940 per ha consist with scientific monitoring of demonstration and non–monetary factors resulted in additional return of Rs. 9705 per ha. On five year average basis, incremental benefit : cost ratio was found 10.62.
Key words:Barley, grain yield, economics, technology gap, extension gap
ARTI KUMARI, L. K. CHUGH*, VINOD KUMAR, SUSHIL NAGAR, NEERAJ KHAROR AND SHEENU
Department of Biochemistry, College of Basic Sciences & Humanities,
CCS Haryana Agricuultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
(Received : 14 June 2020; Accepted : 29 June 2020)
Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is an important food and fodder crop, grown in arid and semi-arid tropical regions. It has great nutritional significance, however, the high amount of phytic acid is considered as anti-nutritional compound towards its use in food/feed for monogastric animals. Hydrolysis of phytate using phytase enzyme is a promising approach for reducing phytate content. In this study, a pearl millet genotype HC 20 with phytase activity of ~63.3 µg Pi/h/g was used for phytase extraction, partial purification and study of properties of enzyme. Phytase was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (30-80% saturation) upto 3.8 fold recovering 54.5 % of the activity. The purified preparation showed maximum activity at pH 5.0. Activities of the crude and ammonium sulphate fractions were 3589 µg Pi/h and 1958 µg Pi/h, respectively. The Km of purified enzyme was 1.51 mM phytate. The purified preparation exhibited optimum activity at 50°C. The enzyme was stable up to 60°C for 30 min. The study revealed the properties of enzyme which might be helpful for its efficient application during food/feed processing for enhanced quality.
Key words:Phytase, phytate, partial purification, characterization, enzyme kinetics
ANIL KUMAR, VIJAYA RANI, MUKESH JAIN, RAJENDER KUMAR AND NITIN KARWASRA
College of Agricultural Engineering & Technology
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : email@example.com)
(Received : 1 June 2020; Accepted : 28 June 2020)
The demand of livestock products is increasing due to increase in human population and change in feeding habits of peoples as they are shifting towards milk products, eggs and meat. To fulfil this demand higher cattle population is required, which will impress upon the need to produce higher feed and fodder from the decreasing land resources. These situations call for use of alternative sources of feed and fodder to bridge the gap between demand and supply of the fodder. In the present situation, the use of rice straw as animal feeding is an option as the majority of rice straw is burnt in the field. This straw can be retrieved from the field by using hay rakes and straw balers. Keeping in view a study was carried out at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Fatehabad (Haryana), India to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of straw baler in paddy variety PB – 1509. The field capacity of straw baler increased from 0.34-0.85 ha/h, net income increased from Rs. 1100 to Rs. 2800/ha, B : C ratio increased from 1.20 to 1.78 and break-even point decreased from 225 to 83 h/year if straw baler is operated after using hay rake.
Key words:Bailing efficiency, field capacity, fuel consumption, hay rake, straw baler
PREETI SHARMA*, M. C. KAMBOJ AND NARENDER SINGH
Regional Research Station, CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org)
(Received : 29 April 2020; Accepted : 12 May 2020)
The experiment was conducted to develop and evaluate six single cross hybrids and their F2 populations developed from crossing and selfing between five inbred lines of maize at experimental area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University Regional Research Station, Uchani, Karnal during both the growing seasons of 2014-16 to estimate correlation analysis for the generations viz., parents (P1 and P2), F1, F2 and back crosses (BC1 and BC2) in six crosses for 15 quantitative traits. Correlation is an important in estimating the relative importance of various characters on grain yield. From the association analysis it was found that grain yield per plant showed significant positive correlation with days to 50% taselling, days to 50% silking, days to maturity, plant height, ear height, cob length, cob diameter, number of grains per cob, 100 grain weight, shelling percentage and lysine content whereas it was found significant negative with protein and starch content. Protein content had significant negative correlation with tryptophan content and tryptophan is significantly positively correlated with lysine content. It was imperative that plant height having strong positive correlation with grain yield was found promising in all the six crosses studied, thus considered as important selection criteria in improving hybrid maize for high grain yield, fodder yield and quality on the basis of association among other characters also. All the six crosses and specially their selected F2 plants are of great importance for population development programme for the development of inbreds and hybrids from the F2 population by crossing promising genotypes on the basis of per se performance.
Key words:Association analysis, correlation, yield, quality, maize