Volume Archives: Vol. 40 No 2 (September 2014)

ADVANCES IN PEARL MILLET TO MITIGATE ADVERSE ENVIRONMENT
CONDITIONS EMERGED DUE TO GLOBAL WARMING

R. K. ARYA*, M. K. SINGH1, A. K. YADAV2, ASHWANI KUMAR3 AND SURESH KUMAR4
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : rajesharya@hau.ernet.in)
(Received : 14 August 2014; Accepted : 12 September 2014)

SUMMARY

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is one of the most important crops of inhabitants of hot and dry conditions of the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. Like other crops, pearl millet is affected by temperature, rainfall (timing and quantity), CO2, solar radiation, soil types and the interaction of these elements. Now-a-days, global warming may cause serious problem in agricultural production, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. As the abiotic stresses affect the seed germination, plant growth and development, resulting in drastic reduction in yield. Pearl millet is a multipurpose crop grown in these areas due to its tolerance to high temperature, drought and salinity. But, further improvement for abiotic tolerance is of instant need, for economization of agriculture in these areas. Therefore, to develop/identify tolerant genotypes, knowledge of screening methods, stress tolerance mechanisms along with breeding techniques is important. Abiotic stresses decrease the rate of germination and may also inhibit the germination depending on heat tolerance of the genotype. A lot of genetic variability is available for heat, drought and salt tolerance in peal millet. Breeding for heat tolerance information of genetic variability, gene action (additive and non-additive), heritability, stability and correlation in relation to heat tolerance is available. Gene interactions on stress tolerance showed its complex nature of inherence. Both conventional as well as molecular breeding techniques were utilized for genetic improvement for tolerance against abiotic stresses in pearl millet.

Key words:Heat, drought, salinity, tolerance, pearl millet

57-70

STUDIES ON EFFECT OF PRIMING TREATMENTS ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT AND THEIR CORRELATION IN GUAR (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L.)
ARUN KUMAR*, R. P. S. KHARB, PANKAJ K. MISHRA¹, MALA KUMARI2 AND ASHWIN B. DAHAKE3
Department of Seed Science & Technology
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : arunphdsst@gmail.com)
(Received : 3 June 2014; Accepted : 27 June 2014)

SUMMARY

Different seed priming treatments T1 (H-D), T6 (KNO3, 0.5%) and T8 (Pseudomonas culture) enhanced germination (6.66-12.66%) in good quality seed-lot of small seeded guar variety HG-365, whereas the treatment T3 (GA3, 50 ppm), T5 (PEG-6000, -5 bar) and T7 (Rhizobium culture) improved the germination percentage (6.67-11.00%) considerably over control in good quality seed-lot of medium bold variety HG-563. The treatments T3, T5, T1 and T6 enhanced field emergence (3.83-7.5%) in good quality lot of HG-365, whereas the treatments T1 and T3 enhanced seedling establishment (SET) percentage (6.00-6.33%) over control in marginal seed lot of HG-563. Similar trend was found for field emergence index (FEI)and mean emergence time (MET) for both the varieties. The SET was found significantly and positively correlated with standard germination, vigour indices (VI-I and VI-II), accelerating ageing (AA), and FEI and negatively with MET. These parameters can be used as reliable predictors of field emergence potential and seedling establishment. Overall, the treatment T3 (GA3, 50 ppm) was found commonly superior in all variety-lot combinations, for enhancing standard germination, final field emergence and reducing the mean emergence time.

Key words: Guar, priming, standard germination, vigour indices, mean emergence time, field emergence and establishment

71-76

SEED HYDROPRIMING–A NICE TOOL FOR ENHANCEMENT OF VIABILITY AND VIGOUR IN COWPEA
V. S. MOR, AXAY BHUKER*, O. S. DAHIYA AND V. P. SANGWAN
Department of Seed Science & Technology
CCS Haryana Agricultural Univeristy,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : bhuker.axay@gmail.com)
(Received : 18 June 2014; Accepted : 24 July 2014)

SUMMARY

An effort was made to standardize the hydropriming technique in cowpea (var. CS-88) for which the equal weight of seed was soaked in three different volumes of water (half, equal and double the volume of seed weight) for five different durations of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 h. It was observed from this study that maximum germination (87.00%), faster speed of germination (16.80%), maximum vigour index-I (2539.10),field emergence index (9.74) and maximum seedling establishment (78.17%) with minimum electrical conductivity (1.03 mS/cm/seed) were observed in the seed which were soaked for 2 h in double the volume of water being sufficient to enhance the quality of cowpea seed. Hydropriming for 4, 8 and 16 h was observed to deteriorate the seed quality parameters.

Key words: Hydropriming, cowpea, seed quality, seed soaking, vigour, viability

77-79

STUDIES ON SEED VIABILITY AND VIGOUR OF FODDER SORGHUM [SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH] SEEDS STORED UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS
SHER SINGH VERMA*, U. VERMA1 AND S. K. PAHUJA2
Department of Seed Science and Technology
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hiasr-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : vermas21@hotmail.com)
(Received : 17 June 2014; Accepted : 7 August 2014)

SUMMARY

Six varieties of fodder sorghum viz., SSG-59-3, HC-308, HJ-513, HC-171, HC-136 and HJ-541were collected and stored under ambient conditions for 15 months. Initially, all the varieties were subjected to the different seed viability and vigour parameters and the observations were recorded on standard germination (%), seedling length (cm), seedling dry weight (mg), seedling vigour index-I & II, electrical conductivity (μS/cm/seed), accelerated ageing test (%) and field emergence (%) after six months of storage. The results showed that all the varieties recorded germination percentage above the Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standard (IMSCS) and ranged from 75.67 to 79.78 per cent after six months of storage. Further seeds of all the varieties were stored under ambient conditions and the observations were recorded at the interval of three months. After nine months of storage, the standard germination and seedling vigour index ranged from 74.60 to 77.33 per cent and 2113.09 to 2685.88, respectively. The EC increased with the passage of time and it ranged from 0.433 to 0.893. The results revealed that germination (%) and seed vigour index decreased drastically in all the varieties after 12 months of storage. The germination ranged from 38.00 to 58.00 per cent after 12 months of storage. The results showed that germination and vigour index of all the varieties decreased as the age of the seed increased. It was concluded that the sorghum seeds maintained their viability and vigour up to nine months of storage under ambient conditions and there was a sharp decline in the quality of sorghum seed after 12 months of storage. Hence, the sorghum seed could be stored for nine months under ambient conditions.

Key words: Fodder sorghum, standard germination, seed viability and vigour, electrical conductivity,
accelerated ageing test, field emergence

80-85

HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR QUALITY TRAITS IN
INTERVARIETAL AND INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS IN OATS

PRATIKSHA MISHRA, R. N. ARORA, U. N. JOSHI AND A. K. CHHABRA
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : arora15@rediffmail.com)
(Received : 4 August 2014; Accepted : 18 September 2014)

SUMMARY

Heterosis and combining ability studies were performed on 7 x 7 half diallel of intra-and interspecific crosses involving six cultivars of Avena sativa and one accession of A. sterilis for crude protein, fat, total soluble sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars in oat grain. The best crosses showing positive significant heterosis were identified as A. sativa cv. HJ 8 x A. sativa cv. UPO 212 and A. sativa cv. HJ 8 x A. sativa cv. OS 346 for protein content; A. sativa cv. HJ 8 x A. sterilis and A. sativa cv. HJ 8 x A. sativa cv. UPO 212 for fat content; A. sativa cv. HJ 8 x A. sativa cv. OS 6 for total soluble sugar; A. sativa cv. UPO 212 x A. sterilis and A. sativa cv. HJ 8 x A. sterilis for reducing sugar and A. sativa cv. HJ 8 x A. sativa cv. OS 6 for non-reducing sugars. Significant GCA effects revealed that parent A. sterilis for higher protein content; OS 6 (A. sativa) for higher fat; UPO 212 (A. sativa) for higher total soluble sugars while parent Kent (A. sativa) for high reducing sugar content whereas, parent OS 346 (A. sativa) for nonreducing sugar were identified as good general combiners. On the basis of significant SCA effects, hybrids Kent (A. sativa) x UPO 212 (A. sativa) and OS 6 (A. sativa) x OS 346 (A. sativa) for grain yield; HJ 8 (A. sativa) x OS 346 (A. sativa) and HJ 8 (A. sativa) x UPO 212 (A. sativa) for CP; HJ 8 (A. sativa) x A. sterilis and UPO 212 (A. sativa) x A. sterilis for high fat; HJ 8 (A. sativa) x OS 6 (A. sativa), HJ 8 (A. sativa) x UPO 212 (A. sativa) for total soluble sugars; HJ 8 (A. sativa) x A. sterilis, OL125 (A. sativa) x OS 346 (A. sativa) for reducing sugars and HJ 8 (A. sativa) x OS 6 (A. sativa) for non-reducing sugars were identified as best specific combiners.

Key words: Heterosis, combining ability, Avena sativa, A. sterilis, diallel

86-90 heterosis RN Arora

STUDIES ON GENETIC VARIABILITY AND TRAIT ASSOCIATION FOR GRAIN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN PEARL MILLET [PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L.) R. BR.]
SATBEER SINGH*, Y. P. YADAV, H. P. YADAV1, DEV VART AND NIKETA YADAV
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : satbeeryadav87@gmail.com)
(Received : 3 August 2014; Accepted : 19 August 2014)

SUMMARY

The present study was undertaken to determine genetic variability present in relation to grain yield and its components with the objective to study their association contributing to grain yield in pearl millet. A set of 24 pearl millet genotypes (7 hybrids and 17 parental lines) was evaluated in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications at Hisar under irrigated conditions during kharif 2011 season. Observations were recorded on 12 yield and yield contributing traits. Considerable amount of variation was found in material under study. Wide range, high coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean were recorded for grain yield/plant, dry fodder weight/plant, fresh fodder weight/plant, productive tillers/plant, plant height and number of nodes/plant. Grain yield was found positively and highly significantly correlated with all the traits under study. Path analysis revealed that productive tillers/plant had highest positive direct effect followed by plant height, spike length and nodes/plant. These desirable correlations showed that productive tillers/plant, plant height, spike length,nodes/plant and fresh fodder weight were the major yield components in pearl millet and therefore can be used as selection criteria for yield improvement of pearl millet.
Key words: Variability, heritability, genetic advance, association, yield components, pearl millet

91-94

ECONOMICS AND VARIETAL PERFORMANCE OF HYBRID NAPIER AND GUINEA GRASS UNDER IRRIGATED CONDITIONS OF NORTHERN KARNATAKA
S. A. BIRADAR*, J. N. SHREEDHAR AND PRALHAD UBHALE
Agrostology Scheme, Main Agricultural Research Station
University of Agricultural Sciences,
Raichur-584 102 (Karnataka), India
*(e-mail : sabiradar1@rediffmail.com)
(Received : 5 August 2014; Accepted : 19 August 2014)

SUMMARY

Less availability of good quality green forages has led to low productivity from national dairy herd. Growing fodder to suit the particular production system is an efficient and economical solution for this problem. Perennial grasses particularly Hybrid Napier and guinea grass are high yielding fodder grasses. Keeping this in view, a field experiment was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, Raichur, Karnataka for two subsequent years of 2010-11 and 2011-12 under irrigated conditions in medium black soils having 0.63 per cent organic carbon, 217 kg/ha available nitrogen, 61 kg/ha available phosphorus and 120 kg/ha available potassium with 8.9 pH to explore the performance of perennial grasses under irrigated condition. The treatments comprised six Hybrid Napier cultivars viz., NB-21, DHN-6, APBN-1, IGFRI-7, Phule Jaywanth and CO-3 and two cultivars of Guinea grass viz., Nadani and Samrudhi. A total of eight treatments were laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The pooled results of two years revealed that Hybrid Napier cv. DHN-6 recorded significantly higher green fodder yield (710 q/ha), however, which was on par with the Hybrid Napier cultivars DHN-6, APBN-1, IGFRI-7, Phule Jaywanth and CO-3. Significantly lower green fodder yield was recorded by NB-21 cultivar (411 q/ha). Among different perennial grasses, the highest net returns (Rs. 55863/ha) and B : C ratio (2.70) were obtained with Hybrid Napier cultivar DHN-6 and closely followed by APBN-1 (Rs. 53449/ha and 2.63). The lowest was with NB-21 cultivar (Rs. 20440/ha and 1.66).
Key words: Perennial grasses, Hybrid Napier, Guinea grass, irrigated conditions, green forage yield

95-97

COMPARISON OF VARIABILITY GENERATED THROUGH BIPARENTAL
MATING AND SELFING IN BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE L.)

B. AGDEW*, S. R. VERMA AND R. P. SAHARAN
Wheat & Barley Section
Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : agdew_bek@yahoo.com)
Received : 16 August 2014; Accepted : 5 September 2014)

SUMMARY

The experiment was conducted to examine the extent of genetic variability generated through biparental mating and selfing for yield and related components in three inter-varietal crosses of barley, namely, IBON-W-61 x DWR 91(Cross I), BH 935 x BH 902 (Cross II) and BH 902/DWRUB 64 (Cross III). The BIPs and F3 populations were grown in a compact family block design with three replications spaced at 30 and 15 cm between plots and plant, respectively. Data were recorded on 10 agronomic traits and subjected to different statistical analyses following their standard procedures. Considerable variation was observed among families for almost all the traits in both F3 and BIPs of three crosses. When comparing the performance BIPs and selfed progenies for most of the traits, higher mean and wider range values were observed in BIPs than in F3 except cross I, in which the range values were wider in F3 for all the characters. The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations were higher in BIPs for grains/spike, biomass yield/plant, grain yield/plant and days to heading in cross II; and for effective tiller number/plant, biomass yield/plant, grain yield/plant, harvest index and 1000-grain weight in cross III, while the PCV and GCV values were higher for all traits in F3 in cross I. Similarly, higher broad sense heritability and genetic advance as per cent of means followed the same pattern as PCV and GCV in every cross.
Keywords : Biparental, phenotypic coefficient of variation, genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance, barley

98-105

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF FORAGE YIELD AND ITS COMPONENT
TRAITS IN BAJRA X NAPIER HYBRIDS

SUNIL M. SATAPUTE, ANANT R. MALI* AND PANKAJ P. JIBHAKATE
Department of Agricultural Botany
M. P. K. V., Rahuri-413 722, (Maharashtra), India
*(e-mail : armali.333@gmail.com)
(Received : 29 September 2014; Accepted : 20 August 2014)

SUMMARY

Variability in 40 derivatives of Bajra x Napier grass hybrids was studied for forage yield and its component characters viz., plant height, number of tillers per plant, number of leaves per tiller, number of internodes per tiller, leaf length, leaf width, L/S ratio, crude protein, oxalic acid content, dry matter yield and green forage yield. The derivative lines were grouped based on vegetative plant vigour into good (9), medium (13) and poor (10), while growth habit into erect (10), semi-erect (10) and spreading (12). High genotypic coefficient of variation for dry matter per plant (33.50), moderate variability in plant height, number of tillers per plant and number of leaves per plant were observed among the germplasm studied. The estimates of heritability (b. s.) and GA as percentage of mean were high for characters viz., dry matter yield, green forage yield, number of tillers per plant, and L : S ratio, indicating influence of additive gene action on these characters, so that further selection should be followed for improvement of derivatives of grass hybrids.
Keywords : Bajra x Napier grass hybrids, genetic advance, heritability, variability, forage yield

106-108

STUDIES ON EFFECT OF SODICITY LEVELS ON DRY MATTER YIELD,
CONTENT PROTEIN AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE IN SORGHUM

NIRANJAN SINGH*1, S. K. SHARMA, ASHWANI KUMAR2, RAJPAUL AND SATYENDER SINGH3
Department of Soil Science
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : nnirajan1234@rediffmail.com)
(Received : 6 June 2014; Accepted : 25 July 2014)

SUMMARY

The experiment was carried out in the Department of Soil Science, CCSHAU, Hisar during kharif season in screen house. The experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil having initial pH (1 : 2) 8.21 and ESP 7.88. Soil of different ESP (15, 30 and 45) was prepared. The results on the studies oF different ESP levels revealed that the dry matter yield of sorghum decreased with increasing ESP levels (control, 15, 30 and 45). The maximum (48.18 g/pot) and minimum (19.78 g/pot) dry matter yield of sorghum was observed at control and 45ESP, respectively. The plant height and protein content also decreased with increasing ESP levels. The uptake of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S decreased with increasing ESP levels. The reduction in N uptake over control was 10.83, 46.77 and 65.22 per cent at 15, 30 and 45 ESP levels, respectively. The Na uptake by sorghum crop increased significantly up to an ESP of 15, as compared to control, whereas further increase in ESP at 30 and 45, it decreased significantly, over 15 ESP. The uptake of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe) also decreased with increasing ESP levels. The maximum uptake was observed at control, whereas minimum at an ESP of 45.
Keywords : ESP, nitrogen, nutrients uptake, dry matter yield, protein content, sorghum

109-115

RESPONSE OF FORAGE SWEET SORGHUM GENOTYPES UNDER
DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS

L. K. MIDHA*, SATYAWAN ARYA AND U. N. JOSHI
Forage Section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : midhalalit55@gmail.com)
(Received : 26 July 2014; Accepted : 5 September 2014)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted at main Forage Research Area, CCSHAU, Hisar during kharif 2011 with four single cut sweet sorghum genotypes (SSV 84, SSV 75, CSV 19 SS and HC 308) and two nitrogen levels (80 and 120 kg N/ha). The plant height, number of tillers per metre row length, green fodder and dry matter yield of sweet sorghum genotypes were significantly influenced by different fertility levels. The highest green fodder yield (428.8 q/ha) and dry matter yield (111.8 q/ha) were recorded in genotype CSV 19 SS followed by genotype HC 308. The maximum plant height, number of tillers, green fodder and dry matter yield were recorded at 120 kg N/ha, which were significantly higher than lower dose i. e. 80 kg N/ha.
Keywords : Sweet sorghum, fodder yield, crude protein, digestible dry matter

116-118

EFFECT OF SODICITY AND NITROGEN LEVELS ON DRY MATTER
YIELD, PROTEIN AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE IN TEOSINTE

NIRANJAN SINGH*1, S. K. SHARMA, RAJPAUL, ROHTAS KUMAR AND ASHWANI KUMAR2
Department of Soil Science
CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar-125 004 (Haryana), India
*(e-mail : nnirajan1234@rediffmail.com)
(Received : 16 June 2014; Accepted : 25 July 2014)

SUMMARY

The present study was carried out in the Department of Soil Science, CCSHAU, Hisar during kharif season in screen house. The experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil having initial pH (1 : 2) 8.21 and ESP 7.88. Soil of different ESP (15, 30 and 45) was prepared. Observed ESP was 7.88, 13.86, 31.15 and 43.79, respectively. The first experiment was conducted in screen house to study the effect of different ESP levels (control, 15, 30 and 45) on teosinte with fixed 80 kg N/ha dose. In second experiment, different nitrogen levels, 0, 40, 80 amd 120 kg N/ha on pearl millet at an ESP of 45 were studied. The results showed decrease in the dry matter yield of teosinte crop with increasing ESP levels (control, 15, 30 and 45). The maximum (48.18, 45.97, 38.82 and 35.74 g/pot) and minimum (19.78, 25.18, 15.09 and 14.63 g/pot) dry matter yield of teosinte were observed at control and 45 ESP, respectively. The plant height and protein content also decreased with increasing ESP levels. The uptake of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S decreased with increasing ESP levels. The reduction in N uptake over control was 10.83, 46.77 and 65.22 per cent at 15, 30 and 45 ESP levels, respectively. The uptake of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe) in teosinte decreased with increasing ESP levels. The maximum uptake was observed at control, whereas minimum at an ESP of 45. The results of experiment conducted on different levels of N (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha) on teosinte forage crop at a constant ESP level (45 ESP) indicated that dry matter yield increased with increasing N levels. The maximum dry matter yield (12.84 g/pot) at 120 kg N/ha and minimum (9.27 g/pot) was obtained at N control in teosinte. The plant height and protein content in these crops also increased with increasing N levels. Effect of different levels of N (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha) on teosinte forage crop at a constant ESP level (45 ESP) indicated that uptake of nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe by teosinte increased with increasing N levels.
Keywords : ESP, nitrogen, nutrients uptake, dry matter yield, protein content, teosinte

119-126

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF
PERENNIAL GRASSES UNDER MID HILL CONDITION OF NAGALAND

T. GOHAIN* AND LIDENO T. KITHAN
Department of Agronomy
School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development,
Nagaland University, Campus-Medziphema, Nagaland-797106
*(e-mail : tankeswar1968@gmail.com)
(Received : 14 August 2014; Accepted : 26 September 2014)

SUMMARY

A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2010 -11 to ascertain the effect of
different treatment combinations having four levels of nitrogen and three perennial grasses on productivity and quality parameters of green fodder production. N was applied at the rate of 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 kgha-1. The three perennial grasses were Hybrid Napier, Congosignal and Setaria. Among the three perennial grasses, Congosignal resulted in highest number of tillers/tussock, leaf-stem ratio and percent dry matter content at all the three cuts in a year. It also resulted in highest green forage yield at all the three cuts (195.82, 238.18 and 258.00 q ha-1) respectively. Among the different N levels application of 120kgN ha-1 recorded in highest forage yield (168.36 q ha-1) at first cut. Green forage yield was highest with 120kgNha-1 which was at par with 80 and 100 kg Nha-1, but significantly superior over the lower dose of 0 and 60
kgNha-1, both at second and third cut respectively. The crude protein yield was found to be highest in 120 kg N ha-1 at all the three cuts. The N uptakes by plants at all the individual cuts were increased significantly with increasing levels of N.
Keywords : Nitrogen, Productivity, Perennial, Grasses

127-131